Samuel Smith - Histoire

Samuel Smith - Histoire

Forgeron, Samuel

Smith, Samuel (1752-1839) Général : Smith a beaucoup voyagé à travers l'Europe en tant que supercargo de l'un des navires marchands de son père. Après la bataille de Lexington, il retourne en Amérique et, en 1776, est nommé capitaine de la 6e compagnie du régiment de ligne du Maryland du colonel William Smallwood. Il a reçu l'ordre d'aller à Annapolis et de saisir le gouverneur Robert Eden du Maryland sur la base d'une correspondance trahissante. Lorsque Smith est arrivé à Annapolis, cependant, le Comité de sécurité lui a interdit de procéder à l'arrestation parce qu'ils ont affirmé que ce serait une présomption d'autorité indue. Le régiment de Smith a combattu à la bataille de Long Island, à la bataille de Harlem et à la bataille de White Plains, ainsi qu'à la retraite du New Jersey. Il est promu au grade de major, puis de lieutenant-colonel du 4th Maryland regiment. Il a servi avec honneur lors de l'attaque de Staten Island et du Brandywine. Au fort Mifflin, Smith est grièvement blessé, mais participe néanmoins aux rigueurs de l'hiver à Valley Forge et à la bataille de Monmouth. Après avoir servi pendant trois ans et demi, il a été réduit à la pauvreté et a été contraint de démissionner de sa commission, bien qu'il ait continué à servir dans la milice de Baltimore jusqu'à la fin de la guerre d'Indépendance. La menace de guerre avec la France et l'Angleterre en 1794 a conduit à la nomination de Smith comme brigadier-général de la milice de Baltimore, avec le grade de major-général. Smith a été élu représentant au Congrès et sénateur, et a servi un court terme en tant que secrétaire de la Marine sous le président Thomas Jefferson. Il a combattu pendant la guerre de 1812, a aidé à fonder la Bank of Maryland et a été l'un des projecteurs du monument de Washington et du monument de la bataille à Baltimore. Vers la fin de sa vie, il a été élu maire de Baltimore.


Sam Smith

Nos rédacteurs examineront ce que vous avez soumis et détermineront s'il faut réviser l'article.

Sam Smith, en entier Samuel Frederick Smith, (né le 19 mai 1992 à Londres, Angleterre), chanteur de soul britannique à la voix mélodieuse qui s'est fait remarquer pour ses paroles qui renversaient les notions d'amour romantique qui définissaient la musique soul populaire.

Smith a grandi dans le Cambridgeshire, né d'un père chauffeur de camion et marchand de légumes et d'une mère banquière. Les deux parents ont encouragé le chant de Smith à un jeune âge, après que le chanteur en herbe les ait impressionnés avec une interprétation de "My Love Is Your Love" de Whitney Houston. Smith a suivi une formation vocale et est rapidement apparu dans des productions théâtrales locales et avec Youth Music Theatre UK, passant par six managers avant de finalement déménager à Londres à l'âge de 18 ans pour y poursuivre des opportunités.

La première grande rupture est survenue lorsque Smith a fait équipe avec le duo house Disclosure sur le morceau « Latch », qui mettait en vedette la voix de fausset liquide de Smith à cheval sur un rythme électronique effervescent. Cet enregistrement est sorti en 2012 et est devenu un hit. La collaboration a décroché un contrat d'enregistrement à Smith. Début 2013, la chanteuse avait sorti "Lay Me Down", le premier single du premier album de Smith, Dans l'heure solitaire. La voix de Smith a également été présentée sur le morceau électronique propulsif « La La La » (2013), du producteur Naughty Boy. Le single de rupture de Dans l'heure solitaire, « Stay with Me », une ballade de fausset entraînante qui implore avec nostalgie un coup d'un soir pour l'affection, est devenue un incontournable de la radio après sa sortie en 2014. Smith a cité les influences de chanteurs tels que Houston et Aretha Franklin, qui ont tous deux propulsé leur puissant , des voix s'envolant vers le haut de gamme de leurs registres alors qu'elles évoquaient l'amour et la perte. Ces thèmes définis Dans l'heure solitaire, un album que Smith, qui était homosexuel, avait composé à la suite d'un rejet romantique par un homme hétérosexuel.

Le jeune chanteur a régulièrement reçu des éloges pour ses styles de dulcet, gagnant des comparaisons avec des crooners allant de Frank Sinatra à Adele. Aux Grammy Awards 2015, Dans l'heure solitaire a été nommé meilleur album vocal pop, et "Stay with Me" a reçu le prix du disque de l'année et de la chanson de l'année. Smith a été considéré comme le meilleur nouvel artiste.

La révélation début 2015 que le chanteur avait réglé à l'amiable avec le musicien Tom Petty sur les similitudes mélodiques entre "Stay with Me" et le single "I Won't Back Down" de Petty en 1989 a été tempérée par une déclaration du rockeur exprimant sa bonne volonté envers Smith. et louant la rapidité avec laquelle la situation a été corrigée. Toujours en 2015, Smith a chanté "Writing's on the Wall", que Smith a écrit avec Jimmy Napes, pour le film de James Bond Spectre le duo a ensuite remporté un Oscar de la meilleure chanson originale. Lors du discours d'acceptation, Smith a mal cité une interview de l'acteur Ian McKellen, laissant entendre à tort que Smith était le premier homme ouvertement homosexuel à remporter un Oscar. Le chanteur a ensuite exprimé ses regrets pour la gaffe et a fait une brève pause sous les projecteurs. Le deuxième album studio de Smith, Le frisson de tout, est sorti fin 2017 et a remporté des éloges à la fois populaires et critiques. La chanson "Him", un plaidoyer pour l'acceptation de l'amour de Smith pour un homme, a été particulièrement acclamée. En 2019, Smith a annoncé une identité non binaire et a tweeté que "mes pronoms sont ils/eux".


Une histoire de famille américaine

Les État de Franklin était un État indépendant non reconnu dans ce qui est maintenant l'est du Tennessee. Il a été créé en 1784 avec l'intention de devenir le quatorzième État. Sa première capitale était Jonesborough. Il a existé pendant environ quatre ans et demi, puis la Caroline du Nord a repris le contrôle.

Samuel Smith est né vers 1755.

Il a épousé sa cousine Mary Smith.

Samuel Smith (1780),
George Smith (1784)
Jacob Smith (1785)
James Smith

En 1777, un Samuel Smith a signé la Pétition de 1777 de Holston Men.

En 1779, Samuel Smith était juge de paix dans le comté de Sullivan, Tennessee.

En 1780, il est nommé juge de paix dans le comté de Sullivan, Tennessee.

Le 20 mars 1787, une conférence eut lieu chez Samuel Smith, Esq. entre Evan Shelby et John Sevier concernant l'État de Franklin.

En 1781, Zebulon Smith remplaça Samuel dans la milice.

Samuel Smith a reçu des concessions de terres dans le comté de Sullivan, Tennessee :
1057 et 1086 en 1782
1446 en 1788

En 1786, le comté de Hawkins a été pris du comté de Sullivan, Tennessee. Une commission comprenant Joseph Martin, James McNeil, John Duncan, William King, Evan Shelby, Samuel Smith et John Scott a été sélectionnée pour trouver un site pour le palais de justice du comté. Apparemment, ils n'ont rien fait à ce sujet, et une nouvelle commission a été nommée en 1795. (de Esquisses historiques, tome 10, 1976 par The Historical Society of Southwest Virginia)

En 1791, Samuel reçut une concession de terre dans le comté de Hawkins.

  • Commençant par un pin et un chêne noir sur sa propre ligne
  • de là au sud trente-quatre ouest cent poteaux jusqu'à un pin cornouiller et Sowerwood
  • de là au nord soixante-sept ouest deux cent quatre-vingts poteaux jusqu'à un poteau
  • de là au nord quarante-est cent quatre-vingt-deux pôles jusqu'à son coin duble châtaignier au sommet d'une crête de là au sud quarante-cinq est deux cent quatre-vingts pôles jusqu'au début

À tous ceux à qui ces présents viendront saluer Sachez que nous pour et en considération de la somme de cinquante shillings pour chaque centaine d'acres ici accordés versés à notre trésor par Samuel Smith ont donné et concédé et, par ces présents, donnez et concédez à Samuel Smith une parcelle de terre Contenant six cent trente acres [630]

mentir et être dans notre comté de Sullivan du côté sud de la rivière Holston sur le ruisseau hickory


Délicieux avec un bol de noix mélangées, avec des fromages piquants ou avec une entrée de sauce molé classique. Pour le dessert, essayez avec des biscotti aux noisettes au chocolat blanc, au lait ou noir ou une mousse au chocolat. Contrastez avec le caramel au crème aux agrumes ou la glace vanille. Un verre de Chocolate Stout Bio est un régal avec un ajout de 10% de lambic Lindemans Framboise. Servir à 50 °F.

Médaille d'or - US Open 2019. "Chocolat/Bière de Cacao" comme annoncé le 9 juillet 2019. Voici la liste complète des gagnants.

4/5 étoiles, hautement recommandé, Journal des esprits, décembre 2016

Meilleures bières au chocolat, Journal des hommes

95 points - "immédiatement attrayant et bien équilibré." Wine Enthusiast Magazine, décembre 2014. Critique complète ici.

Cinq étoiles sur cinq, Celebrator Beer News, octobre/novembre 2014.

Médaille d'or - Championnats du monde de la bière (mars 2013)

Cinq des cinq tasses, "Superbe", L'ère de la brasserie moderne, 10 décembre 2012.


Le site de la taverne Wellfleet - Grande île - Wellfleet

Cuillère à assiette, Great Island Tavern.

Des sites archéologiques de la période historique, principalement de petites fermes largement espacées et disposées linéairement le long de petites vallées orientées est-ouest, existent dans tout le cap extérieur. L'établissement européen initial du cap extérieur a eu lieu vers 1644 lorsque les colons de Plymouth se sont installés à Eastham. La recherche historique nous dit que la pêche, la chasse à la baleine, le commerce et l'agriculture étaient tous importants pour ces nouveaux habitants de l'extérieur du Cap. Un site unique qui peut être visité est le site Wellfleet Tavern (également connu sous le nom de site Samuel Smith Tavern et site Great Island Tavern) sur Great Island, une partie du promontoire qui forme maintenant une limite extérieure de Wellfleet Harbour. Le site a été fouillé en 1969 et 1970 par les archéologues Erik Ekholm et James Deetz. L'analyse des artefacts collectés par Ekholm et Deetz indique une activité sur le site entre 1690 et 1740. Les types d'artefacts trouvés sur le site sont liés à sa désignation de taverne, y compris un pourcentage élevé de récipients à boire, de tiges de pipe et d'autres types de verrerie.

Le Great Island Trail du parc passe par le site de la Wellfleet Tavern. Des expositions d'interprétation décrivant et illustrant les habitants et les modes de vie anciens et historiques de Cape Cod se trouvent au National Park Service Salt Pond Visitor Center, au coin de la route 6 et de Nauset Road, Eastham.


Samuel Smith - Histoire

"SAMUEL SMITH , appelé Lieutenant Samuel après sa nomination en 1663, est né en Angleterre, probablement près de Hadleigh dans le Suffolk, en 1601 ou 1602 où il épousa vers 1624 une Elizabeth qui d. dans So. Hadley, Mass., 16 mars 1686, 84 ans. Il est décédé à Hadley Massachusetts en décembre 1680, à l'âge de 78 ans. (Sa succession a été inventoriée en janvier 1681) Il est venu avec sa femme et quatre de ses enfants dans le navire "Elizabeth" qui a navigué d'Ipswich, Suffolk, Angleterre (voir Judds "Hadley") le 30 avril 1634. Lui et sa femme Elizabeth ont donné leur âge de 32 ans et ont nommé leurs quatre enfants comme suit : Samuel, Jr., 9 ans Elizabeth, 7 ans Mary age 4 et Philip, 1 an. À bord du même navire se trouvaient des familles nommées Rayner, Kemball, Scott, Munnings, Mixer, Bradstreet, Underwood, qui auraient toutes été des gens du Suffolk, et Lewis, Woodward, Bloomfield, Day, Hastings, Gouldson, Coupe et Firmin dont les origines sont inconnues.

"En supposant une période de deux à trois mois pour effectuer une traversée de l'Atlantique à cette époque, la famille n'a probablement pas atteint les côtes américaines avant la fin juillet ou le début août 1634. On ne sait pas exactement où ils ont débarqué. Certains disent que c'était à Salem et en effet un Samuel Smyth (sic) est enregistré (Annals of Salem par Joseph B. Felt, Vol. I, p. 167) comme ayant reçu des terres et fait un homme libre à Salem après 1637. Mais l'"Histoire de Salem" par Sidney Perley, Vol. II, page 11, dit, "une réunion de toute la ville le 23 avril 1638 il y a eu une concession à Samuel Smith de 200 acres de terre étant 50 de plus que son ancienne concession de 100 (sic) acres qui a été annulée" puis dans une note de bas de page il est déclaré que Samuel Smith était l'un des tout premiers colons d'Enon qui est devenu Wenham. Il épousa Sarah qui mourut à l'automne 1642. À la page 127 du même vol. II il est dit que Samuel Smith a construit une maison à Wenham où il a vécu jusqu'en 1642 quand il est mort.

"Ce dossier de Salem semble réfuter l'affirmation selon laquelle le Wethersfield Samuel Smith s'est d'abord installé à Salem. Le fait qu'il était à Watertown est confirmé par le fait qu'en septembre 1634, ce qui devait être peu de temps après son arrivée d'Angleterre, il était un homme libre et l'un des premiers propriétaires de cette ville, mais sans aucune preuve qu'il en était un résident. (voir Bonds History of Watertown, p. 1017.) Certains ont supposé qu'il s'était immédiatement rendu à Wethersfield Connecticut. en règle et favorable et avec droit de vote dans la ville, il est peu probable qu'il ait risqué autant avec sa famille de sa femme et de ses quatre jeunes enfants face à tant d'autres dangers et difficultés. Il aurait cependant pu s'aventurer seul en laissant sa famille avec des amis ou des proches sur le littoral lors d'un voyage d'exploration et comme nous le verrons plus tard cet écrivain soupçonne que c'est ce qu'il a fait. Le Tribunal général a donné son approbation les 6 mai et 3 juin 1635 pour le déplacement des gens de Watertown "à tout endroit qu'ils pensent se réunir pour faire un choix, à condition qu'ils continuent encore sous ce gouvernement" et c'est après l'une de ces dates qu'il semble raisonnable que Samuel Smith et sa famille sont partis. Adams et Stiles dans leur monumental "Ancient Wethersfield", disent à la page 300 du Vol I qu'ils sont venus "en 1635 ou à la fin de 1634".

"Comment il a fait le voyage n'est pas connu. Il aurait pu le faire, comme beaucoup l'ont fait, par voie terrestre sur les sentiers indiens ou il aurait pu emprunter l'eau qui, à certains égards, était plus dangereuse en raison des tempêtes et des canaux inexplorés qui ont fait des ravages sur les bateaux côtiers. Certains envoyaient leurs biens ménagers par eau, mais amenaient eux-mêmes leurs chevaux, bétail et porcs par voie terrestre. Winthrop's "History of New England", page 140 Vol. I, raconte l'histoire d'un groupe de soixante hommes, femmes et petits enfants se rendant par voie terrestre au Connecticut en septembre 1635 avec leurs vaches, chevaux et porcs, et arrivant sain et sauf. Wethersfield aurait été découvert par John Oldham et trois autres à l'automne 1633. Ceux qui sont venus en 1635 et 1636 selon "l'histoire des obligations de Watertown, Massachusetts", comme indiqué à la page 29 d'Adams et Stiles "Old Wethersfield", comprennent Samuel Smith et le lieutenant Robert Seeley. Il y a une forte implication que Samuel peut avoir devancé sa famille. Aux pages 30 et 31 d'Adams et Stiles "Ancient Wethersfield" est donné une liste des nouveaux arrivants à Wethersfield entre 1636 et 1640 "au plus tard en 1645". Dans cette liste se trouvent le révérend Henry Smith et " ses fils Samuel et Philip ". Puisque le révérend Henry n'avait pas de fils Philip et son fils Samuel n'est né qu'en 1638 ou 39 (voir page 628 du tome II de Stiles "Ancient Wethersfield") et Samuel a eu des fils des deux noms dont l'âge en 1636 était de 11 et 3 ans respectivement ( voir page 647 du tome II de Stiles "Ancient Wethersfield") il est tout à fait certain que Samuel et Philip répertoriés étaient les fils de Samuel plutôt que du révérend Henry. Si cela est vrai, voici la preuve qu'ils sont arrivés plus tard que leur père qui est venu en 1635 ou 36, résolvant ainsi la question de savoir comment il aurait pu les loger cette première année dans le désert de Pyquag, le nom indien de la colonie avant qu'il ne soit rebaptisé Wethersfield. Étant là avant eux, il aurait pu construire une maison pour leur arrivée l'année suivante. Une carte du vieux Wethersfield avec le tracé des rues et des lots, 1633,_34, montre la propriété familiale de Samuel Smith située sur Broad Street entre les ménages de Thomas Killbourn au nord et de John Edwards au sud. La maison du révérend Henry Smith, le premier pasteur de l'église de Wethersfield, ainsi que les maisons de Richard Smith et William Smith sont indiquées sur la carte. Aucun de ces trois derniers Smith n'est censé avoir été lié à Samuel. Nathaniel Foote et J. Churchill avec les familles desquelles les membres et les descendants de la famille Samuel Smith se sont mariés plus tard, sont montrés mais pas John Roote ou Luke Hitchcock qui sont venus plus tard. Robert Seeley, dont les enfants du fils de cet écrivain descendent directement, est représenté, il ayant été l'un des tout premiers colons de Wethersfield.

"Samuel Smith est appelé "The Fellmonger" dans les premiers registres de Wethersfield, ce qui signifie très probablement qu'il était tanneur de métier et marchand de peaux et de fourrures d'animaux. Le mot fait généralement référence à des peaux de moutons, mais il ne pouvait pas y avoir eu beaucoup de moutons dans ce désert infesté de loups à une date aussi précoce, bien qu'il y en ait eu un peu plus tard. Cet écrivain s'attendait plutôt à découvrir qu'il était un représentant des commerçants de fourrures de Londres qui commençaient à être actifs en Amérique du Nord à l'époque, mais aucun document à l'appui de cette conjecture n'a été trouvé. Il devait être un homme fortuné, car il figurait dans bon nombre d'achats et de ventes de terres à Wethersfield. À la page 643, vol. I d'Adams et Stiles "Ancient Wethersfield" la déclaration est faite que Samuel Smith était "l'un des hommes les plus riches de Wethersfield". C'était en 1646. Son fils John en 1672 a été admis par vote municipal à Wethersfield en tant qu'habitant pour mettre en place "a commerce de tarning dans cette ville". Il avait vécu à Hadley et était manifestement retourné à Wethersfield à ce moment-là ou avant.

"Samuel Smith a servi Wethersfield en tant qu'adjoint à la Cour générale presque continuellement de novembre 1637 à mai 1656. Il a également été adjoint à la colonie du Connecticut en mars et avril 1638. (Voir Conn. Colonial records ) La Cour générale a siégé d'abord à Hartford (26 avril 836) par l'autorité d'une commission du gouverneur Winthrop - Massachusetts pour « gouverner le peuple du Connecticut pour l'espace d'un an ». Le révérend Henry Smith était l'un des premiers nommés par le gouverneur et vivait à l'époque à Watertown dans le Massachusetts. Plus tard, le Tribunal général du Connecticut, qui comprenait les députés élus, s'appelait « Assemblée générale ». En mai 1678, il était connu sous le nom de "Gouverneur et Conseil". En mai 1698, il fut divisé en deux sections connues sous le nom de « Chambre haute » qui se composait du gouverneur ou de son adjoint et de ses assistants et la « Chambre basse » composée des députés des différentes villes. En 1819, la Chambre haute devint Sénateurs, la Chambre basse, Représentants.

"Au début, la Cour se composait du gouverneur et d'au moins sept assistants choisis et quatre députés de chaque ville. Elle n'exerçait pas seulement des fonctions législatives et juridictionnelles, mais servait également de « cour des élections » avec le pouvoir de choisir le gouverneur et ses assistants. En février 1651, Samuel Smith fut membre d'un tribunal particulier à Hartford, choisi pour juger John Carrington et sa femme pour sorcellerie. Un acte d'accusation "tu mérites de teindre" a été rendu mais les peines n'ont probablement pas été exécutées.

"Samuel Smith figurait dans un certain nombre de transactions foncières et semble avoir été engagé dans diverses entreprises commerciales. En novembre 1649, le tribunal général l'autorisa, ainsi que "le reste des propriétaires du navire à Wethersfield, à installer et à fabriquer autant de cheminées que le fret le fera le premier voyage, etc." Les pipestaves étaient utilisées aux Antilles pour fabriquer des barils pour l'expédition de mélasse, de rhum, de bœuf salé, de porc et de poisson. La construction de ce navire avait été autorisée par le Tribunal général et était probablement le premier navire construit dans le Connecticut. Thomas Deming, charpentier de navire, était probablement le maître d'œuvre. Le navire a été nommé "Tryall" et commandé en premier par M. Larribee, et le maître d'équipage était Christopher Fox de Wethersfield. Il semble qu'il était encore en activité en 1662 et sillonnait les West Indles. Le 28 décembre 1629, Samuel Smith Sr., Nathaniel Dickinson et M. Trat (probablement Richard Treat) ont été choisis par la ville pour « asseoir les hommes et les femmes dans la salle de réunion », une tâche importante à l'époque où le rang social était pratiqué dans la vieille Angleterre. encore influencé les colons. Les sièges étaient placés sur la base du statut de la communauté et ne pouvaient être effectués pacifiquement que par l'homme libre le plus estimé à la fois pour son intégrité et son rang social.

"Le 28 mars 1653, lors d'une réunion de la ville, Samuel Smith était l'un de ceux choisis pour rencontrer un comité de Mattabeseck (Middletown) pour fixer la ligne de démarcation entre les deux colonies. Les questions de frontières étaient problématiques à l'époque et nécessitaient de nombreux ajustements pour régler les problèmes de chevauchement et de contrefaçon qui se posaient parmi les colons.

"En mai 1653, Samuel Smith fut nommé membre du Comité pour la guerre à Wethersfield et quelque temps avant 1658, il fut nommé sergent de la fanfare de Wethersfield. La bande du train était une organisation constituée pour défendre la ville et ses officiers étaient choisis par les militaires, sous réserve de confirmation par le Tribunal particulier qui s'occupait des cas de moindre importance, les contrevenants ayant le droit de faire appel devant le Tribunal général. Wethersfield a envoyé un contingent d'hommes sous le commandement du lieutenant Robert Seeley pour combattre les Pequots en 1637 et il est dit que Samuel Smith faisait partie du groupe, mais cet auteur n'en a vu aucune preuve définitive. (De nombreux premiers enregistrements de Wethersfield ont probablement été perdus au moment des migrations de Stamford et Hadley.)

"Wethersfield au cours des vingt-cinq premières années de son existence a subi deux querelles d'église, l'une en 1640-41, ce qui a entraîné un grand nombre de ses citoyens à se rendre au pays de Rippowam (Stamford Connecticut) et à Saybrook (New Haven, Stratford et Milford), et un deuxièmement, en 1659 résultant en un nombre supplémentaire se retirant de la juridiction du Connecticut dans la juridiction du Massachusetts et fondant Hadley La réunion au cours de laquelle ce dernier retrait a été décidé a eu lieu chez Goodman Ward à Hartford le 18 avril 1659. Ici un contrat a été signé par 59 hommes, dont 20, dont Samuel Smith Sr., Samuel Smith Jr. et Philip Smith étaient de Wethersfield. Les signataires ont accepté de déménager eux-mêmes et leurs familles vers le nouveau règlement sur la rive est de la rivière de Northhampton et d'y habiter le 39e jour de septembre 1660. Le révérend John Russell Jr. de Wethersfield était leur chef spirituel et est devenu leur premier ministre à Hadley.

"L'histoire de Northampton par Trumbull Vol. I, page 76, fait référence aux agents de la Hartford Company, dont l'un était Samuel Smith de Wethersfield, comme achetant, en 1659, la prairie de "Capewonke", connue plus tard sous le nom de Hatfleld. C'était alors une partie de Nanotuck (Nonotuck) comprenant Northampton, une partie de la concession faite aux colons du Connecticut, en grande partie Windsor et Hartford, qui s'installèrent à Northampton en 1653. Le prix payé était de 30 livres en blé et pois, livrés à Hartford , et le paiement est enregistré comme ayant été effectué rapidement. (Premier livre des actes à Springsfield.)

"Le 9 novembre 1659, à Hartford et approximativement en même temps à Wethersfield et à la nouvelle plantation de Norwottuck (Hadley) qui comprenait alors Capewonke, les colons et les futurs colons, choisirent sept hommes, parmi lesquels Samuel Smith, "d'ordonner toutes les occasions publiques qui concernent le bien de cette plantation pour l'année suivante" (Premier livre des records à Hadley)

"Il y avait 48 propriétaires originaux de la colonie dans le pays de Norwottuck, appelé plus tard Hadley, dont Samuel Smith et ses fils Chileab et Philip. On notera que ses fils Samuel et Jean n'apparaissent pas. John, semble-t-il d'après les archives, vivait alternativement à Hadley et à Wethersfield. On pense que Samuel, Jr. a été transféré à New London et de là en Virginie et toute trace de lui a été perdue. (P. 647 Vol. II de Stiles "Ancient Wethersfield")

"La vie publique de Samuel Smith dans la nouvelle plantation Norwottuck, plus tard Hadley, a commencé peu après son arrivée, lui et Peter Tilton ont été choisis mesureurs de la ville le 31 décembre 1660 pour aménager les terres pour les colons, placer des pieux à l'avant et à l'arrière de chaque beaucoup et gardez une trace d'eux. Au cours du même mois à Norwottuck, avec Nathaniel Dickinson, Andrew Bacon, Andrew Warner et William Lewis, Samuel Smith a été choisi comme l'un des premiers Townsmen, maintenant appelés Selectmen. Il assista à la session de mars 1661 du tribunal général de Springfield en tant que juré. Lors de la réunion suivante du tribunal, le 22 mai, la ville fut nommée Hadley, d'après Hadleigh dans le comté de Suffolk, en Angleterre, d'où venaient certains des colons, dont, probablement, Samuel Smith et sa femme, Elizabeth.

"La session du 22 mai 1661 du tribunal a autorisé la ville de Hadley à choisir des commissaires avec pouvoir et sans jury pour déterminer les actions civiles n'excédant pas 5 livres et pour traiter les actions pénales où la peine n'excédait pas dix bandes pour une infraction, "à condition lesdits contrevenants peuvent faire appel de leur cas devant les tribunaux de Springfield ou de Northampton". Les habitants de la ville se sont réunis, comme autorisé, et ont choisi trois commissaires ou adjoints aux tribunaux généraux, l'un étant Samuel Smith, les deux autres Andrew Bacon et M. Wllliam Westwood. Il fut de nouveau choisi en 1663, 1664, 1665, 1667, 1668, 1671 et 1673 et très probablement, si le dossier était complet, en d'autres années également. Il a également été nommé associé du tribunal de comté du comté de Hampshire en 1678 et 1679.

"Samuel Smith a été choisi pour être Townsman ou Selectman à chaque fois, sa dernière élection ayant eu lieu en 1680, l'année de sa mort. D'après les archives, il semblerait également que dans les années où il n'a pas servi comme Townsman, son talentueux fils Philip a servi à la place. En un an, 1675, alors qu'il ne servait pas, deux de ses fils, Philip et Chileab furent choisis.

"Lors de sa session de mai 1663, la Cour a approuvé Samuel Smith en tant que lieutenant de la Hadley Trainband pour servir sous le capitaine John Pynchon de Springfield, poste qu'il a occupé jusqu'en 1678, date à laquelle il a démissionné en raison de son âge avancé. Il a servi inactivement dans la guerre du roi Philip où, en 1676, son fils John a été tué par les Indiens à Hatfield et où, un an plus tard, son gendre, John Graves a connu le même sort. Ces morts tragiques étaient un présage de ce qui allait arriver vingt ans plus tard lorsque, le 16 septembre 1696, Elizabeth Foote Belden, petite-fille du lieut. Samuel Smith a été tué par des Indiens à Deerfield, Mass. et 6 de ses 14 enfants ont été tués, blessés ou capturés par eux. En 1704, également, un arrière-petit-enfant, Samuel Foote fut pris en embuscade et tué par des Indiens.

"Pour en revenir à la période précédente, la maison de Samuel à Hadley aurait servi de cachette aux régicides, Whalley et Goffe, pendant une partie du temps où ils étaient à Hadley. L'autorité pour cela est une lettre datée du 26 mars 1793 écrite par Samuel Hopkins au président de Yale, Ezra Stiles. C'est une conjecture raisonnable en raison de l'importance de Samuel Smith dans Hadley à l'époque.

"Le 16 décembre 1661 et pendant un certain nombre d'années par la suite, Samuel Smith "a été choisi", c'est-à-dire évaluateur. Un plat du village de Hadley pour 1663 montre Liert. Samuel Smith et ses fils Philip et Chileab possèdent des lots de 8 acres chacun. (Judds Hadley, Partie I, pp. 2h, 26.) Le lot de Samuel a été évalué à la valeur maximale de 200 livres, celui de Philip à 150 livres et celui de Chileab à 100 livres. En1681, après le lieut. À la mort de Samuel, son fils Philip était le deuxième plus grand et son fils Chileab le 5e plus gros contribuable de la ville. En 1686, après la mort du fils Philip (par sorcellerie hideuse), il est démontré que le fils Chileab Smith était le plus gros contribuable.

"En avril 1664, M. Samuel Smith a été autorisé à acheter des terres "pour sécuriser la ligne nord de Hadley" (page 21Judds Hadley, partie I), à un prix ne dépassant pas 200 livres. Il n'a pas réussi et a demandé à la Cour générale à la session de 1664 un don de 1000 acres de terre qui pourrait être ajouté aux 200 livres pour satisfaire le dur propriétaire commercial. La requête a été accordée et la transaction conclue sur cette nouvelle base. Le terrain fait maintenant partie de la ville de Whately, dans le Massachusetts.

"Le 14 janvier 1667, le lieutenant Samuel Smith, avec le révérend John Russell et Aaron Cooke, a été choisi lors de la réunion de la ville pour servir d'administrateur d'un fonds offert par M. John Davenport de New Haven et M. William Goodwin de Hadley, agissant en tant qu'administrateurs en vertu de la volonté de feu M. Edward Hopkins, pour l'établissement d'une école secondaire à Hadley. (Le fonds Hopkins a été divisé entre Hadley, Mass., Hartford et New Haven, Conn. et l'Université de Harvard.) Samuel Smith a également été choisi avec d'autres pour faire partie d'un comité chargé de sélectionner le terrain qui serait utilisé par l'école. Son fils Chileab a été nommé administrateur du lycée en 1686 à la suite du décès de Philippe qui a succédé à son père en tant qu'administrateur en 1681.

"Le lieutenant Samuel Smith était un membre original de 1669 à sa mort, du "Hadley School Committee pendant 50 ans" qui était en fait une mission à vie et, par conséquent, donnée uniquement à ceux qui étaient les plus dignes de confiance et les plus respectés de la ville. Il siégea continuellement à ce conseil jusqu'à sa mort en 1680, date à laquelle son fils Philip prit sa place. Le frère de Philip, Chileab, fut ajouté au comité en 1687 et en 1720, le comité se composait de quatre citoyens, dont l'un était le sergent Joseph Smith et un autre, le diacre John Smith, fils de John et Philip respectivement.

"Une autre preuve du respect et de la confiance dans lesquels le lieutenant Samuel Smith était tenu par ses concitoyens était la licence qu'ils lui ont donnée en 1671 pour vendre des vins et des liqueurs fortes, un droit qui a été accordé avec parcimonie par les Selectmen et approuvé avec parcimonie par la Cour A cette époque-là. En 1677, il reçut le pouvoir de célébrer des mariages, droit qu'il avait depuis 1661, mais qu'il ne pouvait exercer qu'en l'absence de Wllliam Westwood qui reçut le premier ce pouvoir.

"En mai 1667, Samuel Smith, le révérend John Russell et Peter Tilton, agissant au nom de Hadley, ont comparu devant la Cour générale pour s'opposer à la requête des citoyens de Hatfield de se séparer de Hadley. Ils réussirent pendant environ deux ans à retarder le retrait, mais le 22 décembre 1669, le lieutenant. Samuel gaz l'un des signataires de l'accord qui a autorisé la séparation et mis fin à la polémique. À peu près à la même époque, le 19 février 1669, il signa une pétition citoyenne auprès du gouverneur et de la Cour générale du Massachusetts, s'opposant au décret qui prélevait des impôts et des douanes sur les marchandises, le bétail, les chevaux et les céréales entrant à Hadley. Les années suivantes, le 3 mai 1670, avec le révérend John Russell et Henry Clark, il signa une pétition "au nom des hommes libres de Hadley", priant le Tribunal général de faire enquête sur la raison du "déplaisir de Dieu" sur eux Une preuve ou ce mécontentement , semble-t-il, était la séparation des membres dissidents de la première église de Boston pour former Old South Church, un événement qui a agité des sections éloignées de la colonie du Massachusetts. Le mémorial faisait référence au "déplaisir du Seigneur" et demandait "qu'il y ait une enquête publique et solennelle sur ce qui a provoqué le Seigneur contre nous". (Voir History of Northampton par Tru, bull pp 215-216, Vol. I). La même source, page 572, répertorie Samuel Smith comme l'un de ceux qui ont contribué au Harvard College, 3 livres. Des valeurs de lin à 0-.03-00 "à partir de cette ligne ci-dessus et maintenant tous placés sous nos 3 livres et la moitié de plus est pck dans le grand baril". This untranslatable gift seems small but it was about the average given by the 89 givers whose total gifts were valued at 29-17-0.

"Lieutenant Samuel Smith and his sons Philip and Chileab were well-to-do for their time. They were engaged in pursuits outside their regular professions indicating that they had capital. In 1678 Lieut. Samuel and Philip had out on loans to John Pynchon, the most prominent man in Springfield, 50 and 25 pounds respectively, at interest. These amounts appear small today but in that early period they were considerable sums

"A review of the Records or the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, Vol. IV, Part II and Vol. V, shows a number of instances where the General Court placed responsibilities upon Lieut. Smith and reposed confidence in him. He was at times assigned duties of dealing with the Indians, hearing their complaints and investigating their requests. The October Court of 1667 chose him as one of a committee of three to treat with the Indians about, "setting of a chief or head over them and by advising with them thereabouts to learn whom they account or desire to be their chief that the English may have their recourse to for satisfaction for injuries from them . and in the case of the Indians not agreeing . that the next General Court may appoint or declare some meet man to be their chief or sachem".

"Another court record, 1663, tells of a committee of six members, including Samuel Smith, being appointed to lay our a fares of 250 acres at Paucomptucke. This was the beginning of Deerfield, Massachusetts.

"In 1678 Lieutenant Smith requested, since he was "nearing 80 years of age" to be "relieved from military trust". His request was granted and his son Philip made Ensign immediately, and later in the same year raised to Lieutenant. Samuel's death two years later, (the inventory of his estate was taken January 17, 1781), indicates, perhaps, that he was justified in seeking some repose after so extended and active a career in the wilderness of a new world. The regret is that so little is known about his wife Elizabeth who remained at his side through all of these hard years, bearing and rearing his children and enduring the hardships of those pioneer times with him. Not one word is written about her trials and activities that this writer has seen. She died March 16, 1686 at the age of 84 leaving a family, the descendents of whom in the next three hundred years, were to swarm over the land producing worthy citizens and many distinguished ones, all Christian and God fearing.

"The children of Lieutenant Samuel Smith and his wife Elizabeth were four sons and two daughters. Four of these children were born in England and two in Wethersfield, Connecticut.


Recovery from Mormonism

--The Strange Death of Samuel H. Smith, Brother of Joseph Smith and Heir Apparent to the Assassination-Emptied Mormon Throne--

In a previous thread, RfM poster “Charley” mentioned the suspicious death of Samuel Harrison Smith, younger sibling of Joseph Smith.

As with circumstances surrounding the agonizing and mysterious death of Brigham Young, allegations have been made over the years that Samuel, too, was the victim of deliberate poisoning deviously administered by those angling for power in the time period following the assassination of Joseph Smith.

“There's . . . the rumor that Brigham Young was behind the suspicious death of Samuel Smith who is also believed to have been poisoned. Instant Karma's gonna get you.”

(“Re: Hard to Swallow: Mormon Apologists Refuse to Consider That Brigham Young May Have Been Deliberately Poisoned In His Own Household . . .,” posted by “Charley,” on “Recovery from Mormonism” board, 20 June 2011, 9:39 p.m. see also, "Hard to Swallow: Mormon Apologists Refuse to Consider That Brigham Young May Have Been Deliberately Poisoned In His Own Household," by Steve Benson, on "Recovery from Mormonism" board, 20 June 2011, 2:08 p.m.)

That rumor appears to be well-grounded.

Samuel Harrison Smith was an early baptized member of the Mormon Church, one of its original founders and one of the so-called "Eight Witnesses." He was also one of the Church's first missionaries and served on the Kirtland, Ohio, High Council.

That apparently wasn't enough to protect him, however.

Samauel died under mysterious circumstances on 30 July 1844, at the age of 36, barely a month after Joseph and Hyrum Smith were shot to death in the jailhouse siege at Carthage, Illinois.

Perhaps not coincidentally, Joseph Smith had chosen his brother Samuel to take on the leadership mantle for the Church if both he and Hyrum were killed. According to Joseph Smith's private secretary William Clayton, Joseph had "said that if he and Hyrum were taken away, Samuel H. Smith would be his successor."

After their deaths in Carthage, Samuel personally transported Joseph's body by wagon--lain in a plain pine box covered with prairie grass--back to Nauvoo.

Soon thereafter, he became violently ill and was himself dead in a matter of weeks.

(see: "Samuel Harrison Smith," at http://today.answers.com/topic/samuel-harrison-smith H. Michael Marquardt, “The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844” [Longwood, Florida: Xulon Press, 2005], p. 635 Dallin H. Oaks and Marvin S. Hill, “Carthage Conspiracy: The Trial of the Accused Assassins of Joseph Smith” (Urbana, Illinois, University of Illinois Press, 1976], p. 21) and Ernest H. Taves, “Trouble Enough: Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon” [Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books,1984], p. 216)
_____

--Cries of Foul Play from Members of Joseph Smith's Family--

Despite efforts by the Mormon Church to dismiss allegations that Samuel Harrison Smith was a victim of a murder plot at the hands of LDS Church leaders conspiring to succeed Joseph Smith, members of the Smith family vigorously contended that Samuel had been purposely killed in a power grab that took place in the aftermath of Joseph's assassination.

Five years after Samuel's death, published media accounts by the only Smith brother to survive the Nauvoo period, William, charged that Samuel had been deliberately poisoned:

"In the October 1849 issue of his newspaper, the 'Melchisedek & Aaronic Herald,' William Smith publishe[d] a list of Mormon martyrs, including Samuel H. [Smith], 'who died from the effects of poison administered to him. He died within one month after the martyrdom of his brother.'"

("Martyrs of the Latter Day Saints," in 'Melchisedek & Aaronic Herald' (Covington, Kentucky) 1, no. 7, Oct. 1849)

A few years later, in a letter to the “New York Tribune,” William Smith provided further details on the suspicious death of his brother, Samuel, pointing a direct finger at Brigham Young and Willard Richards, accusing them of orchestrating Samuel's murder:

"I have good reason for believing that my brother Samuel H. Smith, died of poison at Nauvoo, administered by order of Brigham Young and Willard Richards, only a few weeks subsequent to the unlawful murder of my other brothers, Joseph and Hiram Smith, while incarcerated in Carthage jail.

"Several other persons who were presumed to stand between Brigham Young and the accomplishment of his ambitions and wicked designs, mysteriously disappeared from Nauvoo about the same time, and have never been heard from since."

(William Smith, "Mormonism," letter to the “New York Tribune,” 28 May 1857)

In private correspondence in 1892, William Smith further asserted that Willard Richards asked Hosea Stout (who happened to be Samuel's caretaker) to kill Samuel in order to prevent Samuel from taking office as Mormon Church president before the Quorum of the Twelve (which happened to be led by Brigham Young) could convene to handpick a successor.

(William Smith, letter to "Bro. [ . . . ] Kelley,” 1 June 1892)

Samuel H. Smith's own daughter, Mary B. Smith, expressed her belief that her father and her uncle Arthur Milliken were simultaneously poisoned through the administration of a powdery toxin purported to be medicine--noting, as well, that the same doctors attended both men.

According to Mary, Milliken stopped taking the fatal substance but Samuel continued to the last dose, which "he spit out and said he was poisoned. But it was too late--he died."

(Mary B. Smith Norman, letter to Ina Coolbrith, 27 March 1908 the above citations found in "Samuel H. Smith (1808-1844)," under “Death and Succession Crisis,” in “Saints Without Halos,” at: http://www.saintswithouthalos.com/b/smith_s.phtm)

Moreover, Samuel H. Smith's wife, Levira Clark Smith, also concluded that her popular husband had, in reality, been murdered--and proceeded to name the murderer.

Writes author Richard Abanes:

"[In the wake of Josepsh Smith's death,] Samuel Smith . . . seemed a reasonable choice to many Saints [for the Church's next president]. In fact, he nearly took control of the Church before the Twelve had returned [to Nauvoo], much to the irritation of Willard Richards, who wanted no leader to be named until all the Apostles were present.

"Richards may have gone so far as to have Samuel murdered to prevent any succession. Samuel's wife believed this to be the case, naming as her husband's murderer the Chief of Police--Hosea Stout, a Danite widely known for having a violent streak and a cold-hearted disposition.

"Everyone knew he was more than capable of homicide. He had already been, and would continue to be, connected with several murders and assaults involving apostates and Church critics. . . .

"In the case of Samuel Smith, Stout had acted as Samuel's care-giver when he fell ill, and in that capacity had given Samuel 'white powder' medicine daily until his death. Samuel's wife, daughter, and brother . . . all believed the powder to be poison."

(Richard Abanes, "One Nation Under Gods: A History of the Mormon Church" [New York, New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2002], p. 207)
_____

--Brigham Young Denies Ordering the Murder of Samuel Smith--

Brigham Young hotly denied allegations that he had also been involved in the death of Samuel H. Smith, instead offering up a questionable alibi:

". . . William Smith has asserted that I was the cause of the death of his brother Samuel when brother Woodruff, who is here to day, knows that we were waiting at the depôt in Boston to take passage east at the very time when Joseph and Hyrum were killed.

"Brother Taylor was nearly killed at the time and Doctor Richards had his whiskers nearly singed off by the blaze from the guns. In a few weeks after, Samuel Smith died and I am blamed as the cause of his death.'"

(Brigham Young, "Journal of Discourses," vol. 5, July 1857, p.77)
_____

--Dissecting Young's Shaky Denial--

Former “Recovery from Mormonism” poster "Perry Noid" raises serious questions about the truthfulness of Young's denial of involvement in the death of Samuel H. Smith:

" . . . I [am] struck at how weak [Young's] defense [is].

"He simply seem[s] to be relying on the 'Hey. I was out of town' alibi that Mafia types like to rely on after giving instructions to an agent who just happens to be 'in town.'

"It seems like he's counting on suckers not asking the next obvious question, i.e., '[S]ince [Young] and his pro-polygamy faction obviously were the prime beneficiaries of Sam[uel] Smith's untimely demise, doesn't it stand to reason that [Young] could have given instructions to a subordinate or have knowingly approved of the plan in advance?

"At the very least, isn't it possible that [Young] knew what happened after the fact and covered it up because it worked out so nicely for himself?'

"The pattern of denial by [Young] in this instance sure does feel similar to that used in the Mountain Meadows Massacre case.

"But it's also highly likely that [Young] literally got a 'taste of his own medicine' since his own death followed a prolonged episode of painful, violent vomiting and discomfort that may have been the result of a revenge poisoning."

"Perry Noid" offers additional intriguing and compelling information which makes it entirely possible to conclude that Samuel H. Smith could well have been seen as a dire threat to the interests of Young's conniving inner circle of power-mongering polygamists:

" . . . Samuel was probably the last best hope that the Smith clan had to maintain a dominant leadership position in the Church.

"If he had succeeded Hyrum to the office of Patriarch, that position could have been leveraged into a hereditary presidency that only Smiths were eligible to attain.

"Samuel probably wasn't capable of being a strong leader like Joseph, or even Hyrum, but the Smith clan was likely hoping that he would be able to hold things together long enough for Joe III to ascend to the throne.

"Samuel's claim, in addition to being supported by the fact that he was the eldest Smith male in line after Joe and Hyrum, was also supported by the fact that he was the third official convert to Mormonism, after Joe and Oliver.

"So, I believe that, first and foremost, he was a serious obstacle to the ambitions of the strong pro-polygamy faction that was coalescing behind Brigham.

"I don't know whether or not Samuel would have continued to go along with polygamy but my impression was that he was not an enthusiastic supporter and the remainder of the Smith clan would probably have intended to dump it all together, knowing that it would be a continuing source of trouble for their Church.

"One biography of Samuel indicates that he had no plural wives, but only married his second wife after his first wife had died."

“Perry Noid” further adds that Hosea Stout, former police chief of Nauvoo, may indeed have been the administrator of deadly toxins to Samuel Smith during a power struggle over the issue of polygamy:

“ . . . Samuel was possibly intentionally poisoned by an agent of Brigham Young in 1844. (Samuel was considered by many to be well ahead of Brigham Young in the contest for succession to Joseph Smith, but suddenly fell ill and died on July 30, 1844--barely a month after the deaths of his brothers, Joseph and Hyrum.) . . .

“[Historian D. Michael] Quinn argues that Willard Richards instructed Hosea Stout, a former Danite and police chief of Nauvoo, to poison Samuel Smith. He died not long after Joseph died. While most of the Church leaders were away from Nauvoo at the time, the Church leadership quickly split along the lines of polygamy. Those who favored the continued practice of polygamy and secret ordinances were partial to Brigham Young and wanted to wait until the Quorum of Twelve Apostles returned to Nauvoo before choosing a successor.

"Those who were opposed to the practice of polygamy and secret ordinances favored the leadership of William Marks. Sidney Rigdon quickly made a proposal to become guardian of the Church and Marks threw his support behind Rigdon. However, the day before the meeting to decide whether Rigdon should be appointed guardian, the Apostles returned to Nauvoo.” (Garn LeBaron, Jr., “'The Mormon Hierachy: Origins of Power'--A Review,” 1995, at: http://www.exmormon.org/hierarch.htm )”

("Thanks for the re-post," by "Perry Noid," Recovery from Mormonism board, 5 June, year unknown and "My understanding of the situation . . .," idem, RfM board, 5 June, year unknown, at http://www.exmormon.org/mormon/mormon248.htm )
_____

--Further Reasons to Question Brigham Young's Attempts at Distancing Himself from the Dastardly Deed--

Noting the documentation amassed by historian D. Michael Quinn as well as others, avid student of Mormon history and former RfM poster "Deconstructor" asks, "Why would such an accusation be laid against Brigham Young?," then explains:

“This troubling piece of information came from a Church talk Brigham Young gave in 1857:

"'And William Smith has asserted that I was the cause of the death of his brother Samuel, when brother Woodruff, who is here to day, knows that we were waiting at the depôt in Boston to take passage east at the very time when Joseph and Hyrum were killed. Brother Taylor was nearly killed at the time, and Doctor Richards had his whiskers nearly singed off by the blaze from the guns. In a few weeks after, Samuel Smith died, and I am blamed as the cause of his death." (Prophet Brigham Young, July 1857, 'Journal of Discourses,' vol. 5, p.c77)

“I checked Church history sources and found these clues about the death of Joseph Smith's brother [Samuel] in Navuoo, who died little over a month after Joseph was killed:

"'Samuel Harrison Smith, born in Tunbridge, Vt., March 13, 1808. Died July 30, 1844, broken-hearted and worn out with persecution. Aged 36. The righteous are removed from the evils to come.' (“Times and Seasons,” Vol.5, No.24, p. 760)

"'Hyrum & Joseph w[ere] murdered in Carthage Jail in Hancock Co[,] Illinois. Samuel Smith died in Nauvoo, supposed to have been the subject of conspiricy by Brigham Young.' (“Joseph Smith Family Testimony, William Smith Notes,” circa 1875, in Vogel, “Early Mormon Documents,” p. 488)

"To understand the context, you have to remember that after Smith and Hyrum were killed, there was some conflict over who should be his successor.

"Brigham Young was not in Nauvoo when Smith was killed but started to head back as soon as he heard the news.

"Meanwhile in Nauvoo, several potential leaders were positioning to take the reins of leadership. The most popular replacement was Samuel Smith, the brother of Joseph Smith. William Clayton had recorded Joseph declaring his brother William his successor if both he and Hyrum were killed.

"But Brigham Young's first cousin and Church apostle, William Richards, insisted that nothing should be decided until Brigham Young could return to Nauvoo.

"However, many members did not want to wait, and more and more support was gathering behind Samuel Smith, Joseph Smith's brother, to become the next Prophet and leader of the Church.

"For a select few, this presented a problem because Samuel was violently against polygamy. It was looking like Samuel Smith would become the next prophet and promised to denounce the practice of plural marriage.

"Michael Quinn, from 'The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power,' explains what happened next:

"'Then Samuel Smith suddenly became violently ill and died on 30 July 1844. This added suspicion of murder to the escalating drama.

"'Council of Fifty member and physician John M. Bernhisel told William Smith that anti-Mormons had somehow poisoned his brother.

"'William learned from Samuel's widow that Hosea Stout, a Missouri Danite and senior officer of Nauvoo's police, had acted as his brother's nurse. Stout had given him "white powder" medicine daily until his death. Samuel became ill within days of the discussion of his succession right, and by 24 July was "very sick."

"'There had been enough talk about Samuel's succession claims that the newspaper in Springfield, Illinois, reported, "A son of Joe Smith [Sr.] it is said, had received the revelation that he was to be the successor of the prophet."

"'William Smith eventually concluded that Apostle Willard Richards asked [Hosea] Stout to murder (his brother) Samuel H. Smith.

"'The motive was to prevent Samuel from becoming Church president before Brigham Young and the full Quorum of Twelve arrived (in Nauvoo).

"William's suspicions about Stout are believable since Brigham Young allowed William Clayton to go with the pioneer company to Utah three years later only because Stout threatened to murder Clayton as soon as the apostles left.

"Clayton regarded Hosea Stout as capable of homicide and recorded no attempt by Young to dispute that assessment concerning the former Danite.

"One could dismiss William Smith's charge as a self-serving argument for his own succession claim, yet Samuel's daughter also believed her father was murdered.

"'My father was undoubtedly poisoned,' she wrote. 'Uncle Arthur Millikin was poisoned at the same time--the same doctors were treating my father and Uncle Arthur at the same time. Uncle Arthur discontinued the medicine-without letting them know that he was doing so. (Aunt Lucy [Smith Millikin] threw it in the fire).

"'Father continued taking it until the last dose [which] he spit out and said he was poisoned. But it was too late--he died.'

"Nauvoo's sexton recorded that Samuel Smith died of 'bilious fever,' [which was] the cause of death listed for two children but no other adults that summer.

"This troubling allegation should not be ignored but cannot be verified.

"Nevertheless, Clayton's diary confirms the efforts of Richards to avoid the appointment of a successor before his first cousin Brigham Young arrived.

"'Stout's diary also describes several occasions when Brigham Young and the apostles seriously discussed having Hosea "rid ourselves" of various Church members considered dangerous to the Church and the apostles. Stout referred to this as "cut him off--behind the ears--according to the law of God in such cases."

"'Stout's daily diary also makes no reference whatever to his threat to murder Clayton in 1847. When the Salt Lake "municipal high council" tried Hosea Stout for attempted murder, he protested that "it has been my duty to hunt out the rotten spots in the Kingdom." He added that he had "tried not to handle a man's case until it was right."

"'Evidence does not exist to prove if the prophet's brother was such a "case" Stout handled."' (D. Michael Quinn, “The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power”

(“Did Brigham Young Murder Joseph Smith's Brother? (References),” posted by “Deconstructor,” on “Recovery from Mormonism” board, 6 April, year unknown, at: http://www.exmormon.org/mormon/mormon248.htm)

In support of William Smith's charge that Samuel H. Smith was rubbed out on the orders of Brigham Young in order to prevent him from becoming head of the LDS Church, historian Dan Vogel repeats testimony from members of Joseph Smith's own family:

"'Hyrum & Joseph w[ere] murdered Carthage Jail in Hancock Co[,] Illinois. Samuel Smith died in Nauvoo, supposed to have been the subject of conspiracy by Brigham Young.'"

(Dan Vogel, "Joseph Smith Family Testimony, William Smith Notes," circa 1875, in "Early Mormon Documents," p. 488 and "Was Joseph Smith's brother Samuel Murdered?," by "Deconstructor," at: http://www.i4m.com/think/leaders/brigham_murder.htm)
_____

--Mormon Supporters Claim Samuel Smith's Death Was Due to Accidental Injury or Fever--

Despite numerous indications fueling deep suspicions that Samuel H. Smith may have died of deliberate poisoning at the hands of an inner Mormon circle cabal, the LDS Church-owned and -published "Encyclopedia of Mormonism" makes the suggestion that he actually died from a conveniently unidentified horse-riding injury, supposedly sustained during Samuel's dramatic effort to save the lives of his brothers Joseph and Hyrum:

"Upon hearing of the dangers to his brothers at Carthage, Samuel attempted to ride to their aid, but arrived too late to intervene. He died within the month, apparently of an injury sustained in that ride."

(Sydney Smith Reynolds, "Smith Family," in "Encyclopedia of Mormonism: The History, Scriptures, Doctrine, and Procedure of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," vol. 3 (New York, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992], p. 1360)
_____

--Other Mormon Historians Don't Parrot the LDS Apologist Spin--

LDS historian Donna Hill mentions nothing about Samuel suffering a riding injury, claiming instead that in his gallop to Carthage to save his brothers, he was chased by a mob, arrived too late to rescue them, carried the murdered bodies of Joseph and Hyrum back to Nauvoo and, amid this ordeal, "[c] ontracted a fever and survived his brothers by only a few weeks."

Fellow LDS historians Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton agree with Hill's explanation of Samuel Smith's death, adding only that the mob that chased Samuel on his ride to Nauvoo had "mud-daubed faces."

(Donna Hill, “Joseph Smith, the First Mormon: The Definitive Story of a Complex and Charismatic Man and the People Who Knew Him” [Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1977], p. 448 and Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton, “The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latter-day Saints” [New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979], p. 82)
_____

--The Assessment of Samuel Harrison Smith's Death from Non-Mormon Historical Circles--

Other professional observers--notably the non-Mormon variety--aren't as willing to shrug off Samuel H. Smith's death to a riding injury or a fever.

Richard N. and Joan K. Ostling, in their book, “The Power and the Promise: Mormon America,“ note that Joseph Smith designated his brother Samuel to be his successor, adding that Samuel "would have succeeded [his assassinated brother] Hyrum as [Church] Patriarch and thus had a claim [to succeed Joseph as prophet], but died just weeks after Joseph and Hyrum, amid rumors he had been poisoned."

(Richard N. Ostling and Joan K. Ostling, “The Power and the Promise: Mormon America” [San Francisco, California: HarperSanFrancisco, 1999], p. 337)
_____

--Conclusion: In Mormonism, the Living Prophets Are More Important Than the Dead Prophets--

Could it be that some of the dead prophets became dead at the hands of those who wanted to become the living prophets?

You might be inclined to drink to that.

atheist&happy:-)
Sounds like TSCC we all know, and detest today.
It would make sense for the likes of BY & friends to protect their interests to the point of murder. Their interests being power over the people to control the money, and women. I guess the lard was too busy to manage a nice, orderly succession for his so-called church.

The actual history of TSCC is fairly violent. All I ever heard was the whitewashed version.

I think the Smith's probably felt entitlement to the "family business". As interested parties fought over the empire, how many of the sheeple thought the lard was in charge? I think the men vying for power knew they did not have any special powers from on high.

.
Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne

Danois
It's interesting how blood soaked the church is right from its inceptions.
One can only speculate how many people lost their lives under JS reign. He may have been a bit less ostentatious in his executions than BY but still, I if you didn't support and agree with Joseph your life was on the line. I believe the church was founded on blood but not Christ's.

AmIWhiteYet?
Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Why don't they exhume the body and test the fair fibers. If he was in fact poisoned, it would definitely show up!

kimball
Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Très intéressant. This would shed some light on why Brigham Young pushed blood atonement doctrine so heavily. I always wondered where he had gotten that from, if he had picked it up from some obscure statements he had heard from Joseph, or what? Even so, it doesn't make sense why he would talk about it so much. This is the first explanation I've heard that makes sense. Deep down he knew he was responsible for murder, so he subconsciously (or consciously) was trying to justify that action. Saying things like it would have been better for apostates had their blood been spilt, and we don't fully understand blood atonement doctrine, but it's right in the sight of God - it all makes sense now.

steve benson
It's called theological reverse engineering. Embark on a killing policy, then invent a divine justification for it. Religion has a bloody history of doing exactly that.

ontheDownLow
I made this hypothesis too about 2 months ago.
I already brought up the notion that BY was behind the death of Samuel but possibly also Joseph and Hyrum. His trip to Boston could have been an alibi. Joe called for the mormon militia who never showed up plus Govern. Ford was setting up the demise. Almost like BY was corredinating the whole thing from the printing press of the Navuoo Expositor all the way down to Sam's death in order to take over.

steve benson
Interesting hypothesis. Mormonism was certainly a bloody business in BY's day--and under his rule.

kimball
Re: It's called theological reverse engineering. Embark on a killing policy, then invent a divine justification for it. Religion has a bloody history of doing exactly that.
Brigham or Willard was probably reading about Nephi and Laban when he first concocted the idea. It's better for one man to perish than for an entire religion to dwindle in unbelief (in the divine and imperative concept of polygamy). The Book of Mormon could have given them the idea!

atheist&happy:-)
I think BY preached blood atonement to keep the sheeple in line like any abuser would.
Abusers often make death threats or are violent to third parties to intimidate their victims. In my family, several times, while out driving, my dad threatened to deliberately cause an accident to kill me. He said if he knew he was going to die he would kill me first, because I was not worth going to jail over, and then pretend he had cancer. One morning while I was getting ready for school, he was telling my brothers that I was not to be buried in the family cemetery. This is what abusers do to keep victims scared.

To me it makes perfect sense why BY would talk about it so much. The Masonic penalties, and oaths, and retribution of the OT were conveniences that made their job easier. I see them as abusers from the outset, and the whole of TSCC is an exercise in justification for "leaders" taking things they have no right to in the first place. Religion was made for patriarchal abusers!

steve benson
Abusive religions attract abusive people--and since many abusive religions are headed by men, they attract abusive patriarchal men . . .
. . . although any here who attended parochial Catholic school as kids might be able to attest to the reign of terror by those nuns. :)

Charley
Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Very interesting post Steve. We all know BY condoned murder. After all he kept Rockwell and Hickman around for just such reasons. And it sure looks like JS ordered Rockwell to murder the governor of Missouri.

Early mormonism has a lot in common with the Catholic church under the Borgias. If someone pisses you off poison them. Not that I know that much about the Borgias. I'm still wondering how someone could be pope and have children.

anonyme
Re: Another Poisoning in the Murderous Saga of Machiavellian Mormonism?: Bumping Off the Next In Line to the Prophet's Throne
Well-yes in the Bom there is a scripture that state the chief judger is murdered and the kingdom descends thru murder, mystery n intrigue. I've been poisoned w drano rat poison n warfarin. They are masters at arranging things and yes its all over power. As if what's not going in the world isn't bad enough. Its an inhouse they have in house craziness. Can't get away from the misery.


Samuel Smith - History

Henry “Box” Brown was born enslaved in Louisa County, Virginia in 1815. When he was 15, he was sent to Richmond to work in a tobacco factory. His life was filled with unrewarded drudgery, although he had it better than most of his enslaved peers. The loss of freedom prevented him from living with his wife, Nancy, who was owned by a slave master on an adjacent plantation. She was pregnant with their fourth child when, in 1848, he heard the tragic news: Nancy and his children were to be sold to a plantation in North Carolina. He stood with tears in his eyes on the side of the street as he watched 350 slaves in chains walk by him, including his wife with their unborn child and three young children. He could only wish them a tearful last farewell— he was helpless to save them.
After months of mourning his loss, Henry resolved to escape from slavery. He was a man of faith and a member of the First African Baptist Church where he sang in the choir. He acknowledged that, through his faith in God, he was given the inspiration and courage to put together a creative plan of escape.

The plan and preparation to obtain his freedom:

Henry enlisted the help of his choir-member friend, James Caesar Anthony Smith, a free Black who knew Samuel Alexander Smith, a White sympathizer. (They were not related but had the same last name.) Samuel Smith liked to gamble and, for a profit, agreed to help Henry Brown with his plan. The plan that Henry envisioned was for himself to be shipped in a box by rail from Richmond to Philadelphia, a very creative, unique, and dangerous endeavour.

Samuel Alexander Smith in turn contacted James Miller McKim, a White abolitionist and seasoned member (along with William Still) of the Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Society. Samuel Alexander Smith shipped Henry by Adams Express Company on March 23, 1849, in a box 3 feet long by 2 feet 8 inches deep by 2 feet wide, and sent the box as “dry goods.” Henry Brown traveled in the box lined with baize, a coarse woollen cloth, carrying with him only one bladder of water and a few biscuits. There was a hole cut in the box for air, and it was nailed and tied with straps in large words, “This side up” was written on the box. Brown traveled by a variety of wagons, railroads, steamboats, ferries, and finally, for added safety, a delivery wagon that brought the box to the Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Society before daybreak.

During the 27- hour journey, the box was turned upside down on several occasions and handled roughly. Henry wrote that he “was resolved to conquer or die, I felt my eyes swelling as if they would burst from their sockets and the veins on my temples were dreadfully distended with pressure of blood upon my head.” At one point, Henry thought that he might die, but fortunately two men needed a place to sit down and, “so perceiving my box, standing on end, one of the men threw it down and the two sat upon it. I was thus relieved from a state of agony which may be more imagined than described.” The box with Brown in side was received by William Still, James Miller McKim, Professor C.D. Cleveland, and Lewis Thompson. Upon the box being opened, Brown said, “How do you do, Gentlemen?” then recited a psalm: “I waited patiently on the Lord and He heard my prayer.” He then began to sing the psalm to the delight of the four men present, and was christened Henry “Box” Brown.

The aftermath of Henry "Box" Brown's Courageous journey to freedom:

Samuel Alexander Smith attempted to ship more enslaved from Richmond to Philadelphia on May 8, 1849, but was discovered and arrested. In November of that year, he was sentenced to six-and-one-half years in the state penitentiary. James Caesar Anthony Smith, the free Black, was also arrested on September 25 for attempting another shipment of slaves, but he fared better. The trial that followed resulted in a divided panel of magistrates, and James Caesar Anthony Smith was released and later joined Brown in Boston.

The abolitionist movement of the day held two opposing points of view. Frederick Douglass made it clear that Henry Brown’s escape should not be made public, as others could use this same method. However, others thought that the publicity would help the movement, and that it was just too good a story to keep from the growing number of the public who opposed slavery.

Henry Brown was intoxicated with the feeling that freedom brought, and his personality would not allow him to remain quiet about his achievement. He was his own man and a working class individual. He used this miraculous event to make a new life for himself. He also used his great imagination to support himself. In May 1849, Henry appeared before the New England Anti-Slavery Society Convention in Boston, where he left no doubt in the minds of the audience that the enslaved desired freedom. Brown also became a performer, often reciting the psalm he had sung when he first emerged from the box. In September 1849, the narrative of Henry “Box” Brown was published in Boston by Charles Stearns.

Henry “Box” Brown again showed his creativity late in 1849 when he hired artists and others to begin work on a moving panorama about slavery. In April 1850 Henry “Box” Brown’s “Mirror of Slavery” opened in Boston and was exhibited throughout the summer. With the passing of the Fugitive Slave Act on August 30, 1850, it was no longer safe for Brown to remain in the Northern Free States, as he could be captured and returned to Virginia. Therefore, he sailed for England in October 1850. His panorama was exhibited throughout England. In May 1851, Brown’s own “First English Edition” of the narrative of his life was published in Manchester.

All, however, was not well for Henry “Box” Brown. He was being criticized over finances and for not trying harder to purchase his own family. Thus, Brown left the abolitionist circuit completely and embraced English show business for the next 25 years. He married in 1859, and in 1875, accompanied by his wife and daughter Annie, he returned to the United States. He performed as a magician and continued to climb into his original box as part of his act throughout the eastern United States.

Brown’s last performance is reported to have taken place in Brantford, Ontario, Canada as stated in a Brantford newspaper on February 26, 1889. No later information on Henry “Box” Brown and his family has been discovered. The date and location of his death are unknown.

What is known is that he was a symbol of the Underground Railroad Freedom Movement. He was a man who took courage and combined it with creativity. Henry “Box” Brown soon discovered that in order to survive in the free world, he had to reinvent himself. He realized also that courage is not always given to you. By an act of faith, he said to that “Higher Power” who gave him the creative idea to seek freedom in a box, “Continue to command me now as a freeman, to do the impossible!”


African Colonization

The first half of Smith’s outlandish scheme had a strange afterlife, thanks to the careers of two of his students. Robert Finley, who became a clergyman in Basking Ridge after graduating from Princeton in 1787, was fascinated by the problem Smith had defined in his lectures: how could the evil of slavery be safely removed from the nation? Charles Fenton Mercer, the son of a Virginia slaveholder, graduated from Princeton in 1797 with the conviction that slavery should be abolished. He went on to become a U.S. congressman, a role that gave him a powerful platform from which to promote his beliefs.[16]

In 1816, Finley and Mercer proposed a colonization plan by which African Americans could escape the debilitating effects of white prejudice. They had tweaked Smith’s scheme in two important ways: the colony would be located in West Africa rather than the western territories of the United States, and it would be limited to black colonists only. Mercer and Finley met with Samuel Stanhope Smith in the fall of 1816 as their plans took shape. Finley then convened his first meeting in Princeton, before traveling to Washington in December 1816 to found the new American Colonization Society (ACS).

The ACS immediately attracted the most powerful men in the nation to its ranks. James Madison, another Princeton alumnus, welcomed Finley to Washington, while James Monroe, his successor in the White House, helped the society to purchase what became the colony of Liberia in 1820. (The colony received its name from Maryland politician Robert Goodloe Harper, yet another colonizationist taught by Samuel Stanhope Smith at Princeton.) The ACS quickly became the most popular solution to the problem of slavery among ‘moderate’ whites across the nation. Colonization struggled to win support from free blacks, however, who suspected its motives and its white managers, and the ACS eventually drew fire from William Lloyd Garrison and other radical white abolitionists. But in the decades before the Civil War, the ACS received support from some of the most celebrated figures in American public life: from James Madison, who became the ACS president in 1833, to Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Abraham Lincoln.

The numerous connections between Princeton and the colonization movement led back to Samuel Stanhope Smith, and to the intellectual ambiguities of his racial universalism. Smith’s thinking was hamstrung by an over-dependence on physical malleability and a quiet privileging of whiteness. He rejected permanent racial hierarchies and recognized the corrosive effects of slavery, but placed so much faith in environment (and in the essential benevolence of the antislavery slaveholder) that his writings on race and slavery lacked a critical edge. By the time he’d developed his fantasy of moving black people to the West and experimenting with amalgamation, his more sober disciples had already embraced colonization without any reference to racial mixing.

Smith, like many reformers before 1830, was both a gradualist and a believer in the logic of cooptation: he sincerely imagined that slavery could be abolished with the consent of slaveholders, and that the common origins of blacks and whites would lead to a recognition of their shared humanity. By 1816, as the ACS established exile as the precondition for black freedom, Smith’s partial universalism had terminated in an early version of separate-but-equal. That same year, Virginia abolitionist George Bourne pronounced a harsh verdict on the man who had shaped the racial thinking of the post-Revolutionary generation:


Voir la vidéo: Art u0026 Talk. Light and Color avec Samuel Smith. Adobe France