Le pilote d'essai Reitsch présente une équipe suicide à Hitler

Le pilote d'essai Reitsch présente une équipe suicide à Hitler

Hanna Reitsch, la première femme pilote d'essai au monde, suggère la création de l'équivalent nazi d'une escouade kamikaze de kamikazes lors d'une visite à Adolf Hitler à Berchtesgaden. Hitler était moins qu'enthousiaste à l'idée.

Reitsch est né en 1912 à Hirschberg, en Allemagne. Elle a quitté l'école de médecine (elle avait voulu être médecin missionnaire) pour prendre l'avion à temps plein et est devenue une experte pilote de planeur. En plus d'acquérir de l'expérience avec les planeurs, Reitsch a également fait du vol acrobatique pour le cinéma. En 1934, elle bat le record du monde d'altitude féminin (9 184 pieds). Fervente nazie et admiratrice d'Hitler, elle a été nommée capitaine de vol honoraire par le Führer, la première femme à recevoir un tel honneur. En 1937, la Luftwaffe, l'armée de l'air allemande, la met au travail comme pilote d'essai. Reitsch a saisi cette opportunité de voler dans le cadre de ce qu'elle a appelé les «gardiens des portails de la paix» de l'Allemagne. Parmi ses réalisations marquantes, citons les essais d'un proto-hélicoptère en 1939.

Reitsch s'est beaucoup rapprochée de la plupart des femmes pour assister à de véritables combats pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, déposant des troupes allemandes le long de la ligne Maginot en France lors de l'invasion allemande de 1940 en planeur. Elle a remporté une croix de fer, deuxième classe, pour avoir risqué sa vie en essayant de couper les câbles des ballons de barrage britanniques (les ballons étaient des dirigeables sans pilote, attachés à un endroit, d'où pendaient des câbles d'acier de manière à encrasser les ailes et les hélices des avions ennemis) . Parmi les avions de combat qu'elle a testés se trouvait le Messerschmitt 163, un intercepteur propulsé par une fusée qu'elle a volé à 500 mph. En testant le ME 163 une cinquième fois, elle a perdu le contrôle et s'est écrasée (même si elle a été blessée lors de l'accident, elle a néanmoins réussi à écrire exactement ce qui s'est passé avant de s'évanouir de ses blessures). Pour cela, Hitler lui a décerné une croix de fer, première classe.

C'est en recevant cette deuxième croix de fer d'Hitler à Berchtesgaden en 1944 qu'elle a lancé l'idée d'une escouade suicide de la Luftwaffe composée de pilotes qui piloteraient des versions spécialement conçues du V-1. Hitler a d'abord été rebuté par l'idée, uniquement parce qu'il ne pensait pas qu'il s'agissait d'une utilisation efficace ou efficiente des ressources. Mais l'engagement de Reitsch l'a persuadé d'étudier la possibilité de concevoir de tels avions, à quel point elle a constitué un groupe de suicide et a été la première à prendre l'engagement suivant : un planeur-bombe humaine. Je comprends parfaitement que l'emploi à ce titre entraînera ma propre mort. L'escouade n'a jamais été déployée.

Reitsch a été l'une des dernières personnes à voir Hitler vivant. Le 26 avril 1945, elle s'envola pour Berlin avec le général Ritter von Greim, qui devait prendre le commandement de la Luftwaffe. Greim a été blessé lorsque l'avion de Reitsch a été touché par des tirs antiaériens soviétiques. Après avoir fait ses adieux au Führer, caché dans son bunker, elle a ramené Greim de Berlin.

Après la guerre, Reitsch a été capturé et interné par l'armée américaine. Elle a témoigné de la « désintégration » de la personnalité d'Hitler dont elle a prétendu avoir été témoin durant les derniers jours de la guerre. À sa sortie, Reitsch a continué à battre des records, notamment en devenant la première femme à voler en planeur au-dessus des Alpes. En 1951, elle publie son autobiographie, Voler est ma vie, et de 1962 à 1966, elle a été directrice de l'école nationale de vol à voile au Ghana. Elle est décédée en 1979, un an seulement après avoir établi un nouveau record féminin de distance en planeur. Au cours de sa carrière, elle a établi plus de 40 records du monde de pilotage d'avions motorisés et sans moteur.


28/02/1944: Hanna Reitsch xuất thành lập đội bay cảm tử với Hitler

Vào ngày này năm 1944, khi đến thăm Adolf Hitler Berchtesgaden, Hanna Reitsch, nữ phi công bay thử nghiệm đầu tiên trên thế giới, đã gợi ý rằng Đức bin c Xã nhpật bayt baynt kamikaze (Thần Phong – đội máy bay đánh bom liều chết của Nhật). Tuy nhiên, Hitler không mấy nhiệt tình với ý tưởng này.

Reitsch sinh năm 1912 tại Hirschberg, Đức. Bà rời trường y (bà từng muốn trở thành một bác sĩ truyền giáo) để bắt đầu công việc bay toàn thời gian, và trở thành một phi công láng tày làu lượn mà người Đức đã phát triển để trốn tránh các quy tắc nghiêm ngặt về việc chế tạo “máy bay chiến tranh” sau Thế chiến I. Ngoài việc tích tích lũhiy kinh vng .

Năm 1934, bà đã phá kỷ lục thế giới khi trở thành người phụ nữ baie ở độ cao cao nhất (2800m). Là một thành viên nhiệt thành của c Quốc Xã và đặc biệt ngưỡng mộ Hitler, Reitsch được vị Quốc trưởng phong làm cơ trưởng danh dự, trở thành người vinh n nậ u. Năm 1937, Luftwaffe, lực lượng Không Quân Đức, đưa bà vào làm phi công thử nghiệm. Bà đã nắm lấy cơ hội này để trở thành một phần của cái mà bà gọi là « những người bảo vệ cánh cổng hòa bình » của Đức. Trong số những thành tựu nổi bật của bà là việc thử nghiệm nguyên mẫu máy bay trực thăng vào năm 1939.

Reitsch đã đến gần chiến trường hơn bất kỳ phụ nữ nào khác trong Thế chiến II, khi giúp điều hướng quân Đức dọc theo Phòng tuyến Maginot ở Pháp trong cuộu n xâượm lược 1940n 1940 Bà đã giành được Huân chương Sắt, Hạng Nhì (Croix de fer, deuxième classe), vì đã liều mạng cố gắng cắt dây cáp 'bóng bay' của Anh (đây là loại khinh khí cnguườ kháng nơi, trên đó treo lủng lẳng nhiều sợi cáp bằng thép với mục đích làm hỏng cánh và động cơ của mai bay địch). Trong số các máy bay chiến đấu mà bà thử nghiệm có Messerschmitt 163, một máy bay đánh chặn chạy bằng tên lửa, bay với vận tốc 804 km/giờ. Trong khi thử nghiệm ME 163 lần thứ năm, bà đã mất kiểm soát và rơi xuống đất (mặc dù bị thương trong vụ va chạm, nhưng bà vẫn cố gắng vi kát ra nhínngướtn xtcướn xc ). Vì điều này, Hitler đã trao tặng bà Huân chương Sắt, Hạng Nhất (croix de fer, première classe).

Khi nhận được Huân chương Sắt thứ hai từ Hitler ở Berchtesgaden vào năm 1944, bà đã nêu ý tưởng về một đội cảm tử thuộc Không Quân Đức, gồm các phi công tt c b thi b n-1. Ban đầu, Hitler đã gạt bỏ ý tưởng này vì ông ta không cho rằng đó là một cách sử dụng hiệu quả các nguồn lực. Nhưng sự nhất quyết của Reitsch ã thuyết phục ông xem xét triển vọng của việc thiết kế những chiếc máy bay như vậy. Tại thời điểm đó, bà đã thành lập một Nhóm Cảm tử và là người đầu tiên tuyên thệ : Tôi hoàn toàn hiểu rằng công việc này có thể sẽ dẫn n cái chết của chính tôi. Tuy nhiên, i hình này đã không bao giờ được triển khai.

Reitsch là mt trong những người cuối cùng nhìn thấy Hitler peut chanter. Ngày 26/04/1945, bà bay à Berlin cùng với Tướng Ritter von Greim, người sẽ được trao quyền chỉ huy Luftwaffe. Greim bị thương khi may bay của Reitsch bị trúng n phòng không của Liên Xô. Sau khi nói lời từ biệt với Quốc trưởng, người quyết nh ẩn mình trong boongke, bà đã đưa Greim trở lại Berlin.

Sau chiến tranh, Reitsch bị quân i Mỹ bắt và giam giữ. Bà đã làm chứng cho sự “pân rã” trong nhân cách của Hitler – mà bản thân bà chứng kiến ​​trong những ngày cuối cùng của cuộc chiến. Khi được thả, Reitsch tiếp tục lập nhiều kỷ lục, bao gồm việc trở thành người phụ nữ đầu tiên bay tàu lượn trên dãy Alpes. Năm 1951, bà xuất bản cuốn tự truyện Voler, c'est ma vie, và từ năm 1962 đến năm 1966, bà giữ chức giám đốc trường dạy bay quốc gia Ghana. Bà mất năm 1979, chỉ một năm sau khi lập kỷ lục mới về cự ly bay tàu lượn dành cho nữ. Trong sự nghiệp của mình, Reitsch đã lập hơn 40 kỷ lục thế giới về lái máy bay có động cơ và không động cơ.


Le pilote d'essai Reitsch présente une équipe suicide à Hitler - HISTOIRE

Une femme pilote lance l'escouade suicide à Hitler (28 février 1944)

Aujourd'hui dans Odd History, Hanna Reitsch, la célèbre pilote d'essai de l'Allemagne nazie, a suggéré qu'Adolph Hitler devrait créer un escadron suicide de pilotes de planeur. Hitler était sceptique quant à l'idée, estimant qu'un tel escadron ne serait pas une utilisation efficace des ressources limitées de l'Allemagne. L'enthousiasme du délicat blond l'a finalement convaincu, il a accepté d'étudier la possibilité d'adapter le V-1, qui était conçu pour être une bombe robotique sans pilote, à un véhicule kamikaze. Reitsch a rapidement formé un groupe suicide et a été elle-même la première personne à prendre l'engagement : entraîner ma propre mort." En fin de compte, ni elle ni personne d'autre n'a jamais été appelée à faire ce sacrifice, car l'escadron n'a jamais été déployé.

Reitsch en est venu à voler par une route indirecte. Née à Hirschberg, en Allemagne, en 1912, elle a d'abord poursuivi une carrière en médecine et rêvait de devenir médecin missionnaire volant en Afrique. Cependant, sa passion pour l'air a rapidement dépassé son intérêt pour la médecine et elle a quitté la faculté de médecine pour devenir pilote de planeur à temps plein. (Il avait été interdit à l'Allemagne de construire des "avions de guerre" après la Première Guerre mondiale, ce qui signifiait que la plupart des avions construits en Allemagne étaient construits sans moteurs.) record du monde de vol à voile sans escale en 1931 (record qu'elle a plus que doublé en 1933), le record du monde féminin de vol à voile de point à point en 1939, le record féminin de vol à distance sans escale en 1936, et le record d'altitude féminin en 1934. Elle fut la première personne à traverser les Alpes en planeur, en 1937. En 1938, elle remporta les championnats allemands de vol à voile longue distance.

En 1937, le général Ernst Udet la nomma capitaine de vol civil et pilote d'essai pour la Luftwaffe. Elle était ravie pour elle, la Luftwaffe était "les gardiens des portails de la paix". C'était une Nazie dévouée et idéaliste, qui adorait Adolph Hitler et refusait de croire les rapports sur les camps de concentration et la torture. Son talent et son dévouement ont fait d'elle un puissant symbole du Reich. La Luftwaffe a pleinement utilisé ses talents. Elle a tout testé depuis leur premier hélicoptère, en 1937, jusqu'aux prototypes du V-1, en 1944. (Un pilote d'essai était nécessaire pour cet avion sans pilote car les ailes avaient tendance à tomber. Un siège spécial a été construit en le nez, à partir duquel Reitsch pouvait observer le comportement des ailes et en rendre compte après l'atterrissage. Elle a été choisie pour ces tests car elle avait déjà démontré une capacité remarquable à résister au stress physique.) Elle a également effectué des missions. En 1940, il amène les troupes allemandes sur la ligne Maginot via un transport par planeur. En 1942, Hitler lui décerna la Croix de fer, deuxième classe, pour ses efforts pour couper les lignes d'acier suspendues aux ballons de barrage anglais, toujours dans un planeur. En 1944, elle a testé le Messerschmitt 163 propulsé par fusée, qu'elle a piloté à des vitesses allant jusqu'à 500 MPH. Au cours de son cinquième vol ME 163, elle a perdu le contrôle et s'est écrasée sur l'avion. Malgré ses blessures, elle a réussi à rédiger un rapport complet avant de perdre connaissance. Hitler lui a décerné la Croix de fer, première classe pour ce vol. C'est lors de la cérémonie, à Berchtesgaden, qu'elle lui a présenté son idée d'une brigade des attentats-suicides.

Depuis novembre 1943, Reitsch était stationné le long du front oriental en Russie, avec le général Robert Ritter vonGreim. Le 26 avril 1945, ils s'envolèrent pour Berlin, où Greim était censé prendre le commandement de la Luftwaffe. Leur avion a été touché par des tirs antiaériens soviétiques et Greim a été blessé. Ils sont restés à Berlin pendant 3 jours, en tant qu'invités d'Hitler, mais le 29 avril, il leur a ordonné de retourner en Russie et de rallier les forces allemandes restantes. Reitsch protesta d'abord. Elle voulait être autorisée à mourir avec son Führer. En fin de compte, cependant, elle et Greim ont fait ce qu'on leur avait dit, s'échappant de Berlin juste au moment où l'étau russe se resserrait autour d'elle. Ils arrivèrent au quartier général de l'amiral Karl Doenitz, mais tous deux furent finalement capturés par les forces alliées. Lors de son internement par l'armée américaine, Reitsch a témoigné de la "désintégration" de la personnalité d'Hitler dans les derniers jours de la guerre. Ce n'est que bien plus tard, cependant, qu'elle dira qu'elle avait été "dégoûtée" par ce dont elle avait été témoin dans le Troisième Reich.

Bien qu'elle ait finalement été déçue par le nazisme, Reitsch n'a jamais perdu son amour du ciel. Elle a établi des dizaines de records du monde et a participé à un certain nombre de compétitions. Elle était souvent la seule femme en compétition. Elle a également continué à travailler comme pilote de recherche. En 1959, elle se rend en Inde, où elle se lie d'amitié avec Indira Ghandi et le Premier ministre Nehru. En 1962, elle fonde la National School of Gliding au Ghana, où elle reste jusqu'en 1966. Toujours attirée par les personnes au pouvoir, elle est amie avec le président du Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah. Elle est décédée à Francfort en 1979, un an après avoir établi un nouveau record féminin de distance en planeur.

Hanna Reitsch, dans ses propres mots :
Le ciel mon royaume, par Hanna Reitsch


Hannah Reitsch, prima femeie pilot de testare din lume, sugerează crearea echivalentului nazist al unei echipe kamikaze de atacatori sinucigași în timp ce vizitează Adolf Hitler la Berchtesgaden. Hitler a fost mai puțin entuziast de idee.

Reitsch s-a născut în 1912 în Hirschberg, Allemagne. A părăsit școala de medicină (voia să fie medic misionar) pentru a începe să zboare cu normă întreagă și a devenit un expert al pilotului de planor, avioanele au fost avioane fără motor pe care germanii pentru atrage regulile stricte cu privire la construirea „avioanelor de război” după război mondial. Pe lângă faptul că a câștigat experiență cu planorii, Reitsch a făcut, de asemenea, cascadorii de zbor pentru filme. În 1934, un înregistrat recordul mondial de altitudine pentru femei (9.184 de metri). Nazi arzătoare și admiratoare a lui Hitler, ea a fost făcută căpitan de onoare de către Fuhrer, prima femeie care a primit o astfel de onoare. În 1937, Luftwaffe, forța aeriană germană, a pus-o să lucreze ca pilot de testare. Reitsch a îmbrățișat această ocazie de a zbura ca parte a ceea ce ea a numit „păzitorii Germaniei pentru portalurile păcii”. Printre realizările sale semnale a fost testarea unui proto-elicopter în 1939.

Reitsch sa apropiat mai mult decât oricare altă femeie de a vedea lupta reală în timpul celui de-al doilea război mondial, depunând trupe germane de-a lungul liniei Maginot în Franța, în germane invaziei din 1940 cu avionul. Ea a câștigat o Cruce de Fier, clasa a II-a, pentru că și-a riscat viața încercând să taie cabluri britanice de balot-balon (baloanele erau lovituri fără echipaj, légat într-un s loc, din care cablurile de oțel se agățau, astfel încât să înfige aripile și elicele aeronavelor inamice) . Printre avioanele de război pe care le-a testat se număra Messerschmitt 163, un interceptor cu putere de rachetă pe care a zburat-o 500 mph. În timp ce a testat ME 163 a cincea oară, ea a scăpat de sub control și a aterizat prin accident (deși a fost rănită în timpul accidentului, totuși a reușit să scrie exact ceea ce sa întâmplat & #238nainte de a-și trece rănile). Pentru acesta, Hitler i-a acordat o Cruce de Fier, clasa I.

În 1944, în timp ce primea această a doua Cruce de Fier de la Hitler la Berchtesgaden, ea a aruncat ideea unei echipe de suicid Luftwaffe de piloți care ar zbura versiuni special concepute ale V-1. Initialement, Hitler a fost respins de idee, doar pentru că nu a considerat că este o utilizare eficientă sau eficientă a resurselor. Dar angajamentul lui Reitsch l-a convins să investigheze perspectiva proiectării unor astfel de avioane, moment în care a alcătuit un grup suicid și a fost primul care a luat următoarea promisiune: „Prezent . în mod volontaire, mă înscriu în grupul sinucigaș ca pilot al o glisier-bombă umană. Suis înțeles pe deplin că angajarea în această calitate va atrage propria moarte. ”Echipa nu a fost niciodată dislocată.

Reitsch a fost unul dintre ultimii oameni care l-au văzut în viață pe Hitler. La 26 avril 1945, ea a zburat la Berlin cu generalul Ritter von Greim, care avea să i se dea comanda Luftwaffe. Greim a fost rănit când avionul lui Reitsch a fost lovit de un incendiu antiaerian sovietic. După ce și-a luat rămas bun de la Fuhrer, ascunsă în buncărul său, ea a zburat Greim înapoi din Berlin.

După război, Reitsch a fost capturat i internat de armata americană. Ea a mărturisit "dezintegrarea" personalității lui Hitler despre care a susținut că a fost martor în ultimele zile ale războiului. Când a fost lansat, Reitsch a continuat să stabilească recorduri, inclusiv să devină prima femeie care a zburat un planor peste Alpi. În 1951, ea și-a publicat autobiografia, Zborul este viața mea, iar din 1962 pânăîn 1966 a fost director al colii naționale de alunecare din Ghana. Ea a murit în 1979, la 65 de ani, la numai un an după ce a stabilit un nou record de distanță pentru planor pentru femei. În cariera sa, une stabilité peste 40 de recorduri mondiale pentru avioane cu volan i for motor.


Le pilote d'essai Reitsch lance une escouade suicide à Hitler - 28 février 1944 - HISTORY.com

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Hannah Reitsch, la première femme pilote d'essai au monde, suggère la création de l'équivalent nazi d'une escouade kamikaze de kamikazes lors d'une visite à Adolf Hitler à Berchtesgaden. Hitler était moins qu'enthousiaste à l'idée.

Reitsch est né en 1912 à Hirschberg, en Allemagne. Elle a quitté l'école de médecine (elle avait voulu être médecin missionnaire) pour prendre l'avion à temps plein et est devenue une experte pilote de planeur. En plus d'acquérir de l'expérience avec les planeurs, Reitsch a également fait du vol acrobatique pour le cinéma. En 1934, elle bat le record du monde d'altitude féminin (9 184 pieds). Fervente nazie et admiratrice d'Hitler, elle a été nommée capitaine de vol honoraire par le Führer, la première femme à recevoir un tel honneur. En 1937, la Luftwaffe, l'armée de l'air allemande, la met au travail comme pilote d'essai. Reitsch a saisi cette opportunité de voler dans le cadre de ce qu'elle a appelé les «gardiens des portails de la paix» de l'Allemagne. Parmi ses réalisations marquantes, citons les essais d'un proto-hélicoptère en 1939.


Le pilote d'essai Reitsch lance une escouade suicide à Hitler - 28 février 1944 - HISTORY.com

Sgt Joe C.

27 février dans "En ce jour de l'histoire"

Hannah Reitsch, la première femme pilote d'essai au monde, suggère la création de l'équivalent nazi d'une escouade kamikaze de kamikazes lors d'une visite à Adolf Hitler à Berchtesgaden. Hitler était moins qu'enthousiaste à l'idée.

Reitsch est né en 1912 à Hirschberg, en Allemagne. Elle a quitté l'école de médecine (elle avait voulu être médecin missionnaire) pour prendre l'avion à temps plein et est devenue une experte pilote de planeur. En plus d'acquérir de l'expérience avec les planeurs, Reitsch a également fait des cascades pour le cinéma. En 1934, elle bat le record du monde d'altitude féminin (9 184 pieds). Fervente nazie et admiratrice d'Hitler, elle a été nommée capitaine de vol honoraire par le Führer, la première femme à recevoir un tel honneur. En 1937, la Luftwaffe, l'armée de l'air allemande, la met au travail comme pilote d'essai. Reitsch a saisi cette opportunité de voler dans le cadre de ce qu'elle a appelé les «gardiens des portails de la paix» de l'Allemagne. Parmi ses réalisations marquantes, citons les essais d'un proto-hélicoptère en 1939.

Reitsch s'est rapprochée plus que toute autre femme du combat réel pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, déposant des troupes allemandes le long de la ligne Maginot en France lors de l'invasion allemande de 1940 en planeur. Elle a remporté une croix de fer, deuxième classe, pour avoir risqué sa vie en essayant de couper les câbles des ballons de barrage britanniques (les ballons étaient des dirigeables sans pilote, attachés à un endroit, d'où pendaient des câbles d'acier de manière à encrasser les ailes et les hélices des avions ennemis) . Parmi les avions de guerre qu'elle a testés se trouvait le Messerschmitt 163, un intercepteur propulsé par fusée qu'elle a volé à 500 mph. En testant le ME 163 une cinquième fois, elle a perdu le contrôle et s'est écrasée (même si elle a été blessée lors de l'accident, elle a néanmoins réussi à écrire exactement ce qui s'est passé avant de s'évanouir de ses blessures). Pour cela, Hitler lui a décerné une croix de fer, première classe.

C'est en recevant cette deuxième croix de fer d'Hitler à Berchtesgaden en 1944 qu'elle a lancé l'idée d'une escouade suicide de la Luftwaffe composée de pilotes qui piloteraient des versions spécialement conçues du V-1. Hitler a d'abord été rebuté par l'idée, uniquement parce qu'il ne pensait pas qu'il s'agissait d'une utilisation efficace ou efficiente des ressources. Mais l'engagement de Reitsch l'a persuadé d'étudier la possibilité de concevoir de tels avions, à quel point elle a constitué un groupe de suicide et a été la première à prendre l'engagement suivant : un planeur-bombe humaine. Je comprends parfaitement que l'emploi à ce titre entraînera ma propre mort. L'escouade n'a jamais été déployée.

Reitsch a été l'une des dernières personnes à voir Hitler vivant. Le 26 avril 1945, elle s'envola pour Berlin avec le général Ritter von Greim, qui devait prendre le commandement de la Luftwaffe. Greim a été blessé lorsque l'avion de Reitsch a été touché par des tirs antiaériens soviétiques. Après avoir fait ses adieux au Führer, caché dans son bunker, elle a ramené Greim de Berlin.


La polémique d'Hanna Reitsch

Mais tout le monde n'est pas d'accord pour honorer Hanna Reitsch, non pas en raison de ses capacités et de son importance historique en tant que pilote, mais pour son rôle de nazi et ses liens étroits avec Adolf Hitler.

Le site Web de WOAW n'inclut aucune information biographique liée aux nazis sur Hanna Reitsch (bien qu'il n'y ait pas trop d'informations en général sur la page en question). En ne tenant pas compte de ses contributions au parti nazi, ils ne cautionnent évidemment pas sa participation au Troisième Reich. Mais le fait de ne pas divulguer cela a également des implications, en particulier lorsque certaines de ses réalisations ont été méritées ou reconnues en lien direct avec son rôle dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale et l'Allemagne d'Hitler. Des situations comme celle-ci peuvent évidemment créer une sorte de dilemme moral : que faire ?

Qui était-elle?

Reitsch est née à Hirschberg, en Allemagne et a commencé à s'entraîner au pilotage à l'école de vol à voile de Grunau à l'âge de 20 ans. Pendant ses études de médecine à Berlin, elle s'est inscrite dans une école de pilotage amateur de la poste aérienne allemande pour les avions à moteur. Elle a fini par quitter la faculté de médecine pour devenir pilote/instructeur de planeur à temps plein à Hornberg dans le Bade-Wurtemberg. Sous contrat avec la société cinématographique Ufa en tant que pilote cascadeur, elle a établi un record d'endurance officieux pour les femmes.

En janvier 1934, elle se rend en Amérique du Sud dans le cadre d'une expédition pour étudier les conditions thermiques. Pendant son séjour en Argentine, elle est devenue la première femme à obtenir le Silver C Badge (et la 25e à le faire parmi les pilotes de planeur du monde).

En 1935, elle devient pilote d'essai et s'inscrit plus tard à la Civil Airways Training School.


Les derniers jours d'Hitler dans le bunker

Nom : Fräulein Hanna Reitsch
Rang : Flugkapitän [Capitaine de l'Air -- Titre honorifique décerné pour une réalisation aéronautique exceptionnelle]
Date de naissance : 29 mars 1912
État civil célibataire
Profession : Pilote d'essai et expert en recherche aéronautique
Citoyenneté : Allemande.
Adresse : Château Leopolds Krone, Salzbourg, Autriche
Statut politique : Non membre du parti
Décorations : Croix de fer première classe

Ce rapport est l'histoire des derniers jours de la guerre tels qu'ils ont été vécus par Hanna Reitsch, la célèbre pilote d'essai et experte en recherche aéronautique allemande. Son histoire n'a pas la prétention d'ajouter des détails sensationnels à ce que l'on sait déjà à l'époque, c'est plutôt un témoignage oculaire de ce qui s'est réellement passé dans les plus hauts lieux pendant les derniers instants de la guerre.

Son récit de la fuite à Berlin pour faire rapport à Hitler et de son séjour dans le bunker du Füumlhrer est probablement aussi précis que celui qui sera obtenu de ces derniers jours, bien que le destin "est-il mort ou n'est-il pas mort" d'Hitler soit n'a répondu que dans la mesure de décrire l'état mental et le désespoir de la situation de dernière minute, à partir de laquelle les opinions individuelles doivent être tirées. Sa propre opinion est que la situation tactique et les conditions physiques d'Hitler ont rendu toute idée de son évasion inconcevable.


Le centre d'interrogatoire britannique de Bad Nenndorf, anciennement connu sous le nom de Centre d'interrogatoire détaillé des services combinés n° 74 Zone d'Europe occidentale [CSDIC WEA] où Hanna Reitsch a été interrogée sous
Supervision américaine

Son histoire n'est remarquable que dans la mesure où elle a joué un petit rôle dans les événements de la fin de la guerre et qu'elle a eu des contacts personnels avec les nazis de la tranche supérieure alors que cette fin s'abattait sur eux. C'est également intéressant car il est probable que Reitsch soit l'une des dernières, sinon la toute dernière personne à être sortie vivante du refuge. Ses informations sont évaluées comme fiables et il est possible que son histoire puisse éclairer ou peut-être servir d'aide à une meilleure connaissance de ce qui s'est passé pendant les derniers jours de Berlin et de la guerre.

Parfois, elle n'est pas sûre des noms et des heures précises. Les noms lui échappent. Dans de nombreux cas, les contacts liés ici étaient assez limités dans la mesure où ils ne concernaient que les derniers jours. Ses temps peuvent être inexacts car les événements de ces jours se sont succédés avec un tel tumulte qu'elle est souvent incapable de se souvenir de la séquence appropriée des événements.

On notera qu'une grande partie du rapport s'intéresse à l'interprétation nazie et allemande du mot « honneur ». Reitsch elle-même, en répondant aux questions, pèse soigneusement les aspects « d'honneur » de chaque remarque et donne ensuite ses réponses soigneusement mais honnêtement. L'utilisation du mot équivaut pratiquement à un complexe fétiche avec la source et est presque une incarnation incongrue de toute sa philosophie. Sa répétition constante du mot n'est nullement aussi évidente pour elle que pour l'interrogateur, ni le sens le même, ni l'usage incongru qu'elle fait du mot. Par conséquent, chaque fois que « l'honneur » apparaît, il est présenté sous forme d'excuses sous forme de citations.

Elle raconte son histoire sous forme de conversation, et bien qu'elle soit en partie reproduite de cette manière ici, on ne prétend pas que les citations sont exactes dans tous les cas, elles sont simplement données telles qu'elle s'en souvient. Si l'on garde à l'esprit que ce matériel est une déclaration de ses propres opinions et observations, l'information peut être considérée comme totalement fiable.

Le voyage à Berlin :

Hitler avait envoyé un télégramme à Munich le 24 avril [1945] au lieutenant-général Ritter von Greim, lui ordonnant de faire rapport à la Chancellerie du Reich sur une question extrêmement urgente. Le problème de l'accès à Berlin était alors déjà très précaire, les Russes ayant pratiquement encerclé la ville. Greim décida cependant qu'en se servant de Hanna Reitsch comme pilote, l'entrée pourrait se faire au moyen d'un autogire, qui pourrait atterrir dans les rues ou dans les jardins de la Chancellerie du Reich.

Dans la nuit du 25 au 26 avril, Reitsch et Greim arrivèrent à Rechlin, prêts à s'envoler immédiatement pour Berlin. Cependant, comme le seul autogire disponible avait été endommagé ce jour-là, il fut décidé qu'un pilote de Feldwebel, qui avait emmené Albert Speer au Füumlhrer deux jours auparavant. devrait faire venir Greim en raison de l'expérience que le vol précédent lui avait procurée. Un certain sens des responsabilités envers Greim, en tant que pilote personnel et ami, a poussé Reitsch à prier pour qu'on l'emmène. Un Focke-Wolf 190 devait être utilisé, qui avait un espace de rangement pour un passager disposé derrière le siège du pilote. Reitsch a été fourré dans la queue par une petite ouverture d'urgence.

Quarante combattants ont été emmenés pour voler à couvert.

Presque immédiatement après le décollage, ils ont été engagés par des avions russes. Un vol à toute allure les a conduits à l'aérodrome de Gatow, le seul terrain de Berlin encore aux mains des Allemands. Leur propre vaisseau a réussi avec rien de plus que quelques coups d'ailes, mais le coût était lourd pour les combattants de soutien.

Le débarquement à Gatow a été effectué par d'autres attaques lourdes de combattants russes qui mitraillaient le terrain lorsqu'ils sont arrivés. Ce qui restait des avions allemands engagea les Russes tandis que l'engin Greim effectuait un atterrissage réussi. Immédiatement, des tentatives ont été faites pour téléphoner à la chancellerie, mais comme toutes les lignes étaient coupées, il a été décidé de faire voler un Fieseler Storch disponible pour la distance restante et d'atterrir à distance de marche de l'abri d'Hitler.

Avec Greim aux commandes et Reitsch comme passager, l'avion a décollé sous une couverture tourbillonnante de combats aériens germano-russes. At a height of a few meters Greim managed to get away from the field and continue at tree-top level toward the Brandenburger Tor. Street fighting was going on below them and countless Russian aircraft were in the air. After a few minutes of flight, heavy fire tore out the bottom of the plane and severely injured Greim's right leg. By reaching over his shoulders, Reitsch took control of the craft and by dodging and squirming closely along the ground, brought the plane down on the East-West axis.

Heavy Russian artillery and small-arm fire was sheeting the area with shrapnel as they landed. A passing vehicle was commandeered to take them to Hitler's shelter, with Greim receiving first aid for his shattered foot on the way.

Arrival at Hitler's Shelter:

Greim and Reitsch arrived in the Bunker between 6 and 7 o'clock on the evening of the 26 April. First to meet them was Frau Göbbels, who fell upon Reitsch with tears and kisses, expressing her astonishment that anyone still possessed the courage and loyalty to come to the Führer, in stark contrast to all those who had deserted him. Greim was immediately taken to the operation room where Hitler's physician tended the injured foot.

Hitler came into the sick room, according to Reitsch, with his face showing deep gratitude over Greim's coming. He remarked something to the effect that even a soldier has the right to disobey an order when everything indicates that to carry it out would be futile and hopeless. Greim then reported his presence in the official manner.

Hitler's Denunciation of Göring

H itler: "Do you know why I have called you?"

Hitler: "Because Hermann Göring has betrayed and deserted both me and his Fatherland. Behind my back he has established connections with the enemy. His action was a mark of cowardice. And against my orders he has gone to save himself at Berchtesgaden. From there he sent me a disrespectful telegram. He said that I had once named him as my successor and that now, as I was no longer able to rule from Berlin he was prepared to rule from Berchtesgaden in my place. He closes the wire by stating that if he had no answer from me by nine-thirty on the date of the wire he would assume my answer to be in the affirmative".

The scene Reitsch describes as "touchingly dramatic," that there were tears in the Führer's eyes as he told them of Göring's treachery, that his head sagged, that his face was deathly pallid, and that the uncontrolled shaking of his hands made the message flutter wildly as he handed it to Greim. The Führer's face remained deathly earnest as Greim read. Then every muscle in it began to twitch and his breath came in explosive puffs only with effort did he gain sufficient control to actually shout: "An ultimatum!! A crass ultimatum!! Now nothing remains. Nothing spared me. No allegiances are kept, no honor lived up to, no disappointments that I have not had, no betrayals that I have not experienced, and now this above all else. Nothing remains. Every wrong has already been done me".

As Reitsch explains it, the scene was in the typical "et tu Brute" manner, full of remorse and self-pity. It was long before he could gather sufficient control to continue.

With eyes hard and half-closed and in a voice unusually low he went on: "I immediately had Göring arrested as a traitor to the Reich, took from him all his offices, and removed him from all organizations. That is why I have called you to me. I hereby declare you Göring's successor as OberbefehIshaber der Luftwaffe. In the name of the German people I give you my hand".

"To Die For the 'Honor' of the Luftwaffe"

Greim and Reitsch were deeply stunned with the news of Göring's betrayal. As with one mind they both grasped Hitler's hands and begged to be allowed to remain in the Bunker, and with their own lives atone for the great wrong that Göring had perpetrated against the Führer, against the German people, and against the Luftwaffe itself. To save the "honor" of the flyers who had died, to reestablish the "honor" of the Luftwaffe that Göring had destroyed, and to guarantee the "honor" of their land in the eyes of the world, they begged to remain. Hitler agreed to all of this and told them they might stay and told them too that their decision would long be remembered in the history of the Luftwaffe.

It had been previously arranged with operations at Rechlin that an aircraft was to come in the next day to take Greim and Reitsch out of Berlin. Now that they decided to stay it was impossible to get the information out. Rechlin, in the meantime, was sending plane after plane, each shot down in turn by the Russians. Finally on 27 April a JU 52, loaded with SS guards and ammunition, managed to land on the East-West traffic axis, but because Reitsch and Greim had intended to stay, was sent back empty.

Hitler Sees the Cause As Lost

Later that first evening Hitler called Reitsch to him in his room. She remembers that his face was deeply lined and that there was a constant film of moisture in his eyes. In a very small voice he said, "Hanna, You belong to those who will die with me. Each of us has a vial of poison such as this," with which he handed her one for herself and one for Greim.

"I do not wish that one of us falls to the Russians alive, nor do I wish our bodies to be found by them. Each person is responsible for destroying his body so that nothing recognizable remains. Eva and I will have our bodies burned. You will devise your own method. Will you please so inform von Greim? "

Reitsch sank to a chair in tears, not, she claims, over the certainty of her own end but because for the first time she knew that the Führer saw the cause as lost. Through the sobs she said: "Mein Führer, why do you stay? Why do you deprive Germany of your life? When the news was released that you would remain in Berlin to the last, the people were amazed with horror. 'The Führer must live so that Germany can live,' the people said. Save yourself, Mein Führer, that is the will of every. German".

Hitler: "No Hanna, if I die it is for the 'honor' of our country, it is because as a soldier, I must obey my own command that I would defend Berlin to the last. My dear girl, I did not intend it so, I believed firmly that Berlin would be saved at the banks of the Oder. Everything we had was moved to hold that position. You may believe that when our best efforts failed, I was the most horror-struck of all. Then when the encirclement of the city began the knowledge that there were three million of my countrymen still in Berlin made it necessary that I stay to defend them. By staying I believed that all the troops of the land would take example through my act and come to the rescue of the city. I hoped that they would rise to super-human efforts to save me and thereby save my three million countrymen. But, my Hanna, I still have hope. The army of General Wenck is moving up from the South. He must and will drive the Russians back long enough to save our people. Then we will fall back to hold again".

It appeared almost as if he believed this himself and as the conversation closed he was walking about the room with quick, stumbling strides, his hand clasped behind him and his head bobbing up and down as he walked. Although his words spoke of hope, Hanna claims that his face showed that the War was over.

Hanna returned to Greim's bedside, handed him the poison and then decided with him. should the end really come, that they would quickly drink the contents. of the vial and then each pull the pin from a heavy grenade and hold it tightly to their bodies.

Late in the night of 26 to 27 of April the first heavy barrage bracketed the Chancellery. The splattering of heavy shells and the crashing of falling buildings directly above the air-raid shelter tightened the nervous strain of everyone so that here and there deep sobbing came through the doors. Hanna spent the night tending Greim, who was in great pain, and in getting in the Chancellery grounds before morning.

Hitler's Guests in the Shelter

The next morning she was introduced to the other occupants and learned for the first time the identity of all those who were facing the end with the Führer. Present in the elaborate shelder on the 27 April were Göbbels and his wife with their six children State Secretary Naumann: Hitler's right hand, Reichsleiter Martin Bormann Hewel from Ribbentrop's office Admiral Voss as representative from Dönitz General Krebs of the infantry and his adjutant Burgdorf Hitler's personal pilot, Hans Baur another pilot Beetz Eva Braun SS Obergruppenführer Fegelein as liaison between Himmler and Hitler and husband of Eva Braun's sister Hitler's personal Physician, Dr. Stumpfegger Oberst von Below, Hitler's Luftwaffe Adjutant Dr. Lorenz representing Reichspresse chief Dr. Dietrich for the German press two of Hitler's secretaries, a Frau Christian, wife of General der Flieger Christian and a Fräulein Krüger and various SS orderlies and messengers. Reitsch claims that these composed the entire assembly.

A regular visitor during the last days was Reichsjugendführer Axman who was commanding a Hitlerjugend division committed to the defense of the city. From Axman came current information as to the ground situation against the Russians which was well mirrored by the increasingly despondent manner of each visit.

Another Betrayal

Late in the afternoon of the 27th Obergruppenführer Fegelein disappeared. Shortly thereafter it was reported that he had been captured on the outskirts of Berlin disguised in civilian clothes, claiming to be a refugee. The news of his capture was immediately brought to Hitler who instantly ordered him shot. The rest of the evening Fegelein's betrayal weighed heavily on the Führer and in conversation he indicated a half-way doubt as to Himmler's position, fearing that Fegelein's desertion might have been known and even condoned by the SS leader.

Observations on Shelter Occupants

Reitsch had little contact with most of the people in the shelter, being mostly occupied in nursing von Greim, but she did have the opportunity to speak to many of them and observe their reaction, under the trying conditions of the last days in the Bunker. It is believed that she attempts to relate her observations truthfully and that her reactions are honestly conceived. It must be remembered that prior to her arrival in the Bunker Reitsch had but small contact with most of these individuals and that her previous opinions regarding them were at a rather low level. Of the people she was able to observe closely the Göbbels family probably stands out.

Doctor Göbbels

She describes Göbbels as being insanely incensed over Göring's treachery. He strode about his small, luxurious quarters like an animal, muttering vile accusations concerning the Luftwaffe leader and what he had done. The precarious military situation of the moment was Göring's fault. Their present plight was Göring's fault. Should the war be lost, as it certainly now seemed it would be, that too would be Göring's fault.

"That swine," Göbbels said, "who has always set himself up as the Führer's greatest support now does not have the courage to stand beside him. As if that were not enough, he wants to replace the Führer as head of the State. He, an incessant incompetent, who has destroyed his Fatherland with his mishandling and stupidity, now wants to lead the entire nation. By this alone he proves that he was never truly one of us, that at heart he was always weak and a traitor".

All this, as Hanna saw it, was in the best theatrical manner, with much hand waving and fine gestures, made even more grotesque by the jerky up-and-down hobbling as he strode about the room. When he wasn't railing about Göring he spoke to the world about the example those in the Bunker were setting for history. As on a platform and gripping a chair-back like a rostrum he said: "We are teaching the world how men die for their 'honor.' Our deaths shall be an eternal example to all Germans, to all friends and enemies alike. One day the whole world will acknowledge that we did right, that we sought to protect the world against Bolshevism with our lives. One day it will be set down in the history of all time".

It appears that Göbbels exercised his greatest ability to the very last. The rooms of Göbbels and Reitsch adjoined each other and the doors were usually open. Through them the Göbbels oratory would sound out at any hour of the day or night. And always the talk was of "honor" of "how to die," of "standing true to the Führer to the last," of "setting an example that would long blaze as a holy thing from the pages of history".

One of the last things Reitsch remembers hearing from the lips of the Propaganda master was: "We shall go down for the glory of the Reich so that the name of Germany will live forever". Even Reitsch was moved to conclude that the Göbbels display, in spite of the tenseness of the situation, was a bit overdrawn and out and out theatrical. She claims that in her opinion Göbbels, then as he always had, performed as if he were speaking to a legion of historians who were avidly awaiting and recording every word. She adds that her own dubious opinions regarding Göbbels' mannerisms, his superficiality, and studied oratory, were well substantiated by these outbursts. She claims too, that after listening to these tirades she and von Greim often asked each other, with a sad, head-shaking attitude, "Are these the people who ruled our country?"

Frau Göbbels

Frau Göbbels she described as a very brave woman, whose control, which was at most times strong, did break down now and then to pitiful spasms of weeping. Her main concern was her children, and in their presence her manner was always delightful and cheery. Much of her day was occupied in keeping the children's clothes clean and tidy, and as they had only the clothes they wore this kept Frau Göbbels occupied. Often she would quickly retire to her room to hide the tears. It appears from Hanna's description that Frau Göbbels probably represented the epitome of Nazi indoctrination.

If the Third Reich could not live she preferred to die with it, nor would she allow her children to outlive it. In recognition of the example she embodied of true German womanhood, Hitler, in the presence of all the occupants of the Bunker, presented her with his personal golden party insignia. "A staunch pillar of the 'honor' upon which National Socialism was built and the German Fatherland founded," was his approximate remark as he pinned it to her dress.

Frau Göbbels often thanked God that she was alive so that she could kill her children to save them from whatever "evil" would follow the collapse. To Reitsch she said, "My dear Hanna, when the end comes you must help me if I become weak about the children. You must help me to help them out of this life. They belong to the Third Reich and to the Führer and if those two things cease to exist there can be no further place for them. But you must help me. My greatest fear is that at the last moment I will be too weak".

It is Hanna's belief that in the last moment she was not weak.

Conclusions that can be safely drawn from Hanna's remarks is that Frau Göbbels was simply one of the most convinced subjects of her own husband's rantings the most pronounced example of the Nazi influence over the women of Germany.

The Göbbels Children

The Göbbels children numbered six. Their names and approximate ages were: Helga, 12 Hilda, 11 Helmut, 9 Holde, 7 Hedda, 5: Heide, 3.

They were the one bright spot of relief in the stark death shadowed life of the Bunker. Reitsch taught them songs which they sang for the Führer and for the injured von Greim. Their talk was full of being in "the cave" with their "Uncle Führer" and in spite of the fact that there were bombs outside, nothing could really harm them as long as they were with him. And anyway "Uncle Führer" had said that soon the soldiers would come and drive the Russians away and then tomorrow they could all go back to play in their garden. Everyone in the Bunker entered into the game of making the time as pleasant as possible for them. Frau Göbbels repeatedly thanked Reitsch for making their last days enjoyable, as Reitsch often gathered them about her and told them long stories of her flying and of the places she had been and the countries she had seen.

It seemed to Reitsch that Hitler's "girl friend" remained studiously true to her position as the "showpiece" in the Führer's circle. Most of her time was occupied in finger nail polishing, changing of clothes for each hour of the day, and all the other little feminine tasks of grooming, combing, and polishing. She seemed to take the prospect of dying with the Führer as quite matter of fact, with an attitude that seemed to say: ". had not the relationship been of 12 long years duration and had she not seriously threatened suicide when Hitler once wanted to be rid of her. This would be a much easier way to die and much more proper. " Her constant remark was "Poor, poor Adolf, deserted by everyone, betrayed by all. Better that ten thousand others die than that he be lost to Germany".

In Hitler's presence she was always charming, and thoughtful of his every comfort. But only while she was with him was she completely in character, for the moment he was out of earshot she would rave about all the ungrateful swine who had deserted their Führer and that each of them should be destroyed. All her remarks had an adolescent tinge and it appeared that the only "good" Germans at the moment were those who were caught in the Bunker and that all the others were traitors because they were not there to die with him. The reasons for her willingness to die with the rest were similar to those of Frau Göbbels. She was simply convinced that whatever followed the Third Reich would not be fit to live in for a true German. Often she expressed sorrow for those people who were unable to destroy themselves as they would forever be forced to live without "honor" and reduced instead to living as human beings without souls.

Reitsch emphasizes that Braun was very apparently of rather shallow mentality, but she also agrees that she was a very beautiful woman. Beyond fulfilling her purpose, Reitsch considers it highly unlikely that Braun had any control or influence over Hitler. The rumor of the last minute marriage ceremony Reitsch considers as highly unlikely, not only because she believes that Hitler had no such intention, but also because the circumstances in the Bunker on the last days would have made such a ceremony ludicrous. Certainly, up to the time Reitsch left the Bunker, hardly a day before Hitler's death was announced, there had not been the slightest mention of such a ceremony. The rumor that there had been children out of the union, Reitsch quickly dismisses as fantastic.

Martin Bormann moved about very little, kept instead very close to his writing desk. He was "recording the momentous events in the Bunker for posterity". Every word, every action went down on his paper. Often he would visit this person or that to scowlingly demand what the exact remark had been that passed between the Führer and the person he had just had an audience with. Things that passed between other occupants of the Bunker were also carefully recorded. This document was to be spirited out of the Bunker at the very last moment so that, according to the modest Bormann, it could, "take its place among the greatest chapters of German history".

Adolf Hitler

Throughout Hanna's stay, in the Bunker Hitler's manner and physical condition sunk to lower and lower depths. At first he seemed to be playing the proper part of leading the defence of Germany and Berlin. And at first this was in some manner possible as communications. were still quite reliable. Messages were telephoned to a Flak tower and from there were radioed out by means of a portable, balloon-suspended aerial. But each day this was more and more difficult until late on the afternoon of the 28th and all day on the 29th communications were almost impossible. On about 22 April, at what was probably the last Hitler war-council in the Reichschancellery, the Führer is said to have been so overcome by the persistently hopeless news that he completely broke down in the presence of all the gathering. The talk in the Bunker, where Hanna heard of the collapse, was that with this display even the most optimistic of Hitler's cohorts tended toward the conviction that the War was irretrievably lost. According to Reitsch, Hitler never physically nor mentally recovered from this conference room collapse.

Occasionally he still seemed to hold to the hope of General Wenck's success in breaking through from the South. He talked of little else, and all day on the 28th and 29th he was mentally planning the tactics that Wenck might use in freeing Berlin. He would stride about the shelter, waving a road map that was fast disintegrating from the sweat of his hands and planning Wenck's campaign with anyone who happened to be listening. When he became overly excited he would snatch the map from where it lay, pace with a quick, nervous stride about the room, and loudly "direct" the city's defence with armies that no longer existed [as even Wenck, unknown to the Führer, had already been routed and destroyed].

Reitsch describes it as a pathetic thing, the picture of a man's complete disintegration. A comic-tragedy of frustration, futility and uselessness. The picture of a man running almost blindly from wall to wall in his last retreat waving papers that fluttered like leaves in his nervous, twitching hands, or sitting stooped and crumpled before his table moving buttons to represent his non-existent armies, back and forth on a sweat-stained map, like a young boy playing at war.

The Possibility That Hitler Still Lives

The possibility that Hitler might have gotten out of the Bunker alive, Reitsch dismisses as completely absurd. She claims that she is convinced that the Hitler she left in the shelter was physically unable to have gotten away. "Had a path been cleared for him from the Bunker to freedom he would not have had the strength to use it," she says. She believes too, that at the very end he had no intention to live, that only the Wenck hope stayed his hand from putting the mass suicide plan into operation. News that Wenck could not get through, she feels, would immediately have set off the well rehearsed plans of destruction.

When confronted with the rumor that Hitler might still be alive in Tyrol and that her own flight to that area, after she had left the Bunker, might be more than coincidental, she appears deeply upset that such opinions are even entertained.

She says only: "Hitler is dead! The man I saw in the shelter could not have lived. He had no reason to live and the tragedy was that he knew it well, knew it perhaps better than anyone else did".

Hanna's Opinion of the Führer

It is apparent from Reitsch's conversation that she held the Führer in high esteem. It is probably also true when she says that her "good" opinion suffered considerably during the closing stages of the War. She is emphatic when she describes the apparent mismanagement she observed and learned of in the Bunker. For instance, Berlin had been depleted of arms to hold the Oder. When that line fell it appeared that no coherent defence plan of Berlin had been prepared, certainly adequate arrangements had not been made to direct the defence from the Bunker. There was no other communication equipment available than the telephone that led only to the Flak tower. It appears that only in the last moment had he decided to direct the battle from the shelter and then did not have the first tools with which to operate. No maps. No battle plans. No radio. Only a hastily prepared messenger service and the one telephone were available. The fact that unknown to Hitler, the Wenck army had been destroyed almost days before, was only one example of the inadequacies. All of which resulted in the Führer of Germany sitting helplessly in his cellar impotently playing at his table-top war.

Reitsch claims that Hitler the idealist died, and his country with him, because of the incompetence of Hitler the soldier and Hitler the statesman. She concludes, still with a faint touch of allegiance, that no one who knew him would deny his idealistically motivated intentions nor could they deny that he was simply infinitely incompetent to rule his country, that one of his great faults was proper character analysis in the people about him which led to the selection of persons equally incompetent to fill important positions. [Most important example: Göring]

She repeatedly remarked that never again must such a person be allowed to gain control of Germany or of any country. But strangely enough she does not appear to hold him personally responsible for many of the wrongs and evils that she recognizes completely and is quick to point out. She says rather, "A great part of the fault lies with those who led him, lured him, criminally misdirected him, and informed him falsely. But that he himself selected the men who led him can never be forgiven".

A Criminal Against the World

"Hitler ended his life as a criminal against the world," but she is quick to add, "he did not begin it that way. At first his thoughts were only of how to make Germany healthy again, how to give his people a life free from economic insufficiencies and social maladjustments. To do this he gambled much, with a stake that no man has the right to jeopardize - the lives of his people. This was the first great wrong, his first great failure. But once the first few risks had been successful, he fell into the faults of every gambler he risked more and more, and each time that he won he was more easily, led to the next gamble". According to Reitsch it all began with the occupation of the Ruhr. This was the first and most difficult gamble of all and when the world did not answer his Ruhr bluff with war, every succeeding risk became progressively easier.

Each success made the enthusiasm of the people greater and this gave him the necessary, support to take the next step. The end-result, Reitsch claims, is that Hitler himself underwent a character change that transformed him from an idealistically motivated benefactor to a grasping, scheming despot, a victim of his own delusions of grandeur. "Never again, she concludes, "in the history of the world must such power be allowed to rest with one man".

Suicide Council

On the night of the 27th to 28th the Russian bombardment of the Chancellery reached the highest pitch it had yet attained. The accuracy to those in the shelter below, was astounding. It seemed as if each shell landed in exactly the same place as the one before, all dead-center on the Chancellery buildings. As this indicated that the Russian ground troops could over-run the area at any, moment, another suicide council was called by the Führer. All plans as to the destruction of the bodies of everyone in the shelter were gone over again. The decision was that as soon as the Russians reached the Chancellery grounds the mass suicide would begin. Last instructions were given as to the use of the poison vials.

The group was as hypnotized with the suicide rehearsal and a general discussion was entered into to determine in which manner the most thorough destruction of the human body could be performed. Then everyone made little speeches swearing allegiance again and again to the Führer and to Germany. Yet, through it all, still ran the faint hope that Wenck might get in the hold long enough to effect an evacuation. But even on the 27th, Reitsch claims, the others paid lip-service to the Wenck hope only to follow the lead of the Führer. Almost everyone had given up all thoughts of being saved, and said so to each other whenever Hitler was not present.

Closing the discussions on the destruction of the bodies there was talk that SS men would be assigned to see that no trace remained.

Throughout the day of the 28th the intensity, of the Russian fire continued while the suicide talk kept pace with the shelling in the shelter below.

The greatest blow of all

A telegram arrived which indicated that the staunch and trusted Himmler had joined Göring on the traitor list. It was like a death blow to the entire assembly. Reitsch claims that men and women alike cried and screamed with rage, fear and desperation, all mixed into one emotional spasm. Himmler the protector of the Reich, now a traitor was impossible. The telegram message was that Himmler had contacted the British and American authorities through Sweden to propose a capituluation to the San Francisco conference. Hitler had raged as a mad man. His color rose to a heated red and his face was virtually unrecognizable. Additional evidence of Himmler's "treachery" was that he had asked not to be identified with the capitulation proposals American authorities were said to have abided by this request, while the British did not.

After the lengthy out-burst Hitler sank into a stupor and for a time the entire Bunker was silent.

Later came the anti-climatic news that the Russians, would make a full force bid to over-run the Chancellery on the morning of the 30th. Even then small-arm fire was beginning to sprinkle the area above the shelter. Ground reports indicated that the Russians were nearing the Potsdamer Platz and were losing thousands of men as they fanatically prepared the positions from which the attack of the next morning was to be launched.

Reitsch claims that everyone again looked to their poison.

Orders to Leave the Shelter

At one-thirty on the morning of 29 April, Hitler, with chalk-white face, came to Greim&rsquos room and slumped down on the edge of the bed. "Our only hope is Wenck," he said, "and to make his entry possible we must call up every available aircraft to cover his approach". Hitler then claimed that he had just been informed that Wenck's guns were already shelling the Russians in Potsdamer Platz.

"Every available plane," Hitler said, "must be called up by, daylight, therefore it is my order to you to return to Rechlin and muster your planes from there. It is the task of your aircraft to destroy the positions from which the Russians will launch their attack on the Chancellery. With Luftwaffe help Wenck may get through. That is the first reason why you must leave the shelter. The second is that Himmler must be stopped," and immediately he mentioned the SS Führer his voice became more unsteady and both his lips and hands trembled. The order to Greim was that if Himmler had actually made the reported contact, and could be found, he should immediately be arrested. "A traitor must never succeed me as Führer! You must get out to insure that he will not".

Greim and Reitsch protested vehemently that the attempt would be futile, that it would be impossible to reach Rechlin, that they preferred to die in the shelter, that the mission could not succeed, that it was insane.

"As soldiers of the Reich," Hitler answered, "it is our holy duty to exhaust every possibility. This is the only chance of success that remains. It is your duty and mine to take it".

Hanna was not convinced. "No, no," she screamed, Nothing can be accomplished now, even if we should get through. Everything is lost, to try to change it now is insane". But Greim thought differently. "Hanna," he said, "we are the only hope for those who remain here. If the chance is just the smallest, we owe it to them to take it. Not to go would rob them of the only light that remains. Maybe Wenck is there. Maybe we can help, but whether we can or cannot, we will go". Hanna, still convinced as to the absurdity of attempting an escape went alone to the Führer while Greim was making his preparations. Through her sobbing she begged, "Mein Führer why, why don't you let us stay?" He looked at her for a moment and said only: "God protect you".

The Leave Taking

Preparations were quickly made and Reitsch is graphic in her description of the leave taking. Below, late Göring's Liaison officer with the Führer and now a staunch Greim-man said, "You must get out. It depends upon you to tell the truth to our people, to save the 'honor' of the Luftwaffe: to save the meaning of Germany for the world". Everyone gave the departing duo some token, something to take back into the world. Everyone wrote quick, last minute letters for them to take along. Reitsch says that she and Greim destroyed all but two letters which were from Göbbels and his wife to their eldest son, by Frau Göbbels first marriage who was then in an Allied prisoner of war camp. These Reitsch still had. Frau Göbbels also gave her a diamond ring from her finger to wear in her memory.


Contenu

The establishment of a suicide squadron (personnel) was originally proposed by Otto Skorzeny and Hajo Herrmann. The proposal was supported by noted test pilot Hanna Reitsch. The idea proposed was that Germany would use volunteers as suicide pilots in order to overcome the Allies' numerical advantages with their fanatic spirit. The idea had roots in German mythology that was glorified by Nazi propaganda. Hitler was reluctant, but eventually agreed to Reitsch's request to establish and train a suicide attack air unit, with the condition that it would not be operated in combat without his approval. The new unit, nicknamed the "Leonidas Squadron", became part of KG 200. It was named after Leonidas I, king of Sparta, who in 480 BC, after realizing that he was being flanked, dismissed the bulk of his army and resisted the invading Persian army at the Battle of Thermopylae with 1400 warriors who fought to the last man against 100,000 Persians.

Reitsch's plan was to attack Allied invasion shipping using the Messerschmitt Me 328 as a suicide weapon which would dive into the sea underneath ships and explode a 900 kilograms (2,000 lb) bomb. Heinrich Himmler approved the idea, and suggested using convicted criminals as pilots. The Luftwaffe's High Command was unenthusiastic Erhard Milch turned the plan down as impractical, and Hermann Göring showed little interest. Adolf Hitler was against the idea of self-sacrifice, believing that it was not in keeping with the German character, and furthermore did not see the war situation as being bad enough to require such extreme measures. Despite this, he allowed Reitsch to proceed with the project after she had shown the plan to him in February 1944. Günther Korten, the Luftwaffe's head of general staff, gave the matter to the commander of KG 200 to deal with. [1]

Over 70 volunteers, mostly young recruits, came forward they were required to sign a declaration which said, "I hereby voluntarily apply to be enrolled in the suicide group as part of a human glider-bomb. I fully understand that employment in this capacity will entail my own death." [2]

Problems were experienced in converting the Me 328, and the decision was taken to use instead a manned version of the V-1 flying bomb, the Fieseler Fi 103R (Reichenberg) however, it never entered operation.

On 9 June 1944, Karl Koller announced that a group of KG-200s equipped with special Focke-Wulf Fw 190s was ready for "total operations". Each aircraft carried a heavy bomb, the weight of which meant that the machines could not carry enough fuel for a return flight. Thus the pilots were only trained using the aircraft as gliders. This project ultimately came to nothing, and Werner Baumbach, by then the commander of KG-200, persuaded his friend Albert Speer that it would be more productive to use the men against Russian power stations rather than against the Allied invasion fleet Speer passed this on to Hitler. [1]

During the Battle for Berlin, the Luftwaffe flew "self-sacrifice missions" (Selbstopfereinsätze) against Soviet-held bridges over the Oder River. These 'total missions' were flown by pilots of the Leonidas Squadron under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Heiner Lange from 17 April until 20 April 1945, using any aircraft that were available. Les Luftwaffe claimed that the squadron destroyed seventeen bridges. However, the military historian Antony Beevor, writing about the incident, claims that this was exaggerated and that only the railway bridge at Küstrin was definitely destroyed. Beevor comments that "thirty-five pilots and aircraft was a high price to pay for such a limited and temporary success". The missions were called off when the Soviet ground forces reached the vicinity of the squadron's airbase at Jüterbog and were in a position to overrun it. [3]


Hannah Reitsch, a világ első női tesztpilóta, az öngyilkos merénylők kamikázok csoportjának náci ekvivalensének létrehozását javasolja, miközben Adolf Hitlert látogatja Berchtesgadenben. Hitler kevésbé volt lelkes az ötlet iránt.

Reitsch 1912-ben született a németországi Hirschbergben. Elhagyta az orvosi iskolát (misszionáriusi orvosnak akart lenni), hogy teljes munkaidőben vállalja a repülést, és profi siklópilóta lett. A motoros motorok nem voltak olyan repülők, amelyeket a németek fejlesztettek ki annak érdekében, hogy megkerüljék a „háborús repülőgépek” építésére vonatkozó szigorú szabályokat. A siklóernyőkkel szerzett tapasztalatok mellett Reitsch kaszkadőrként mozog a moziban. 1934-ben megtörte a világon a nők magassági rekordját (9184 láb). A lelkes náci és Hitler csodálója, a Fuhrer, az első nő, aki ilyen megtiszteltetésben részesült, tiszteletbeli repülési századossá tette. 1937-ben a Luftwaffe, a német légierő tesztpilótaként tette hozzá. Reitsch megragadta ezt a repülési lehetőséget annak részeként, amit Németországnak a „békeportálok őrzőjének” nevez. - Jelzései között szerepelt egy proto-helikopter tesztelése 1939-ben.

Reitsch a többi világháború idején közelebb lépett a tényleges harchoz, amikor a német csapatokat a Maginot vonal mentén helyezte el Franciaországban a németek 1940-es inváziója alatt, a vitorlázó repülővel. Megnyerte a második osztályú vaskeresztét azért, hogy életének kockázatával megpróbálta elvágni a brit léggömb-léggömbök kábeleit (a léggömbök pilóta nélküli pillanatai voltak, egy helyre vannak kötve, ahonnan acélkábelek lógtak, hogy az ellenséges repülőgépek szárnyai és hajtócsavarjai megsérüljenek). . A tesztelt hadi repülőgépek között szerepelt a Messerschmitt 163, egy rakéta-hatalom-elfogó, melyről 500 mph repült.Mialatt ötödik alkalommal tesztelte a ME 163-at, ellenőrizetlenül kilépett és ütközés alá került (bár az ütközésés sor&# 225n megsérült, ennek ellenére sikerült pontosan leírnia, mi történt, mielőtt kiszabadult a sérüléseiből). Ezért Hitler első osztályú Vaskereszttel ítélte oda.

A második vaskereszt átvételekor, amikor Hitlertől 1944-ben Berchtesgadenben megkapta ezt, elképzelte egy Luftwaffe öngyilkos csapatot, amely a V-1 speciálisan tervezat225tt válisan tervezat225 vát Hitlert eredetileg elhalasztotta az ötlet, csak azért, mert nem gondolta, hogy az erőforrások hatékony vagy eredményes felhasználása. De Reitsch elkötelezettsége rágyőzte őt, hogy vizsgálja meg az ilyen repülőgépek tervezésének kilátásait. Ekkor összeállította az Öngyilkossági csoportot és először vállalta a következő ígéretét: „Ezúton… önként je holentkezem arra, felvételt szerezzek az öngyilkos csoportba egy emberi vitorlázó bomba. Teljes mértértem megértem, hogy e minőségben történő foglalkoztatás saját halálomat fogja eredményezni. « A csapatot soha nem helyezték be.

Reitsch volt az egyik utolsó braise, aki életben látta Hitlert. 1945. április 26-án Ritter von Greim tábornokkal repült Berlinbe, akinek a Luftwaffe parancsnokságot kellett adniuk. Greim megsebesült, amikor Reitsch représentantülőgépét szovjet légijármű-tűz sújtotta. Miután búcsúcsút mondott a fiharéról, amelyet a bunkerébe dobtak, Greim visszarepült Berlinből.

A háború után Reitsch-t az amerikai hadsereg foglyul ejtette és stagiaireálta. Tanúsította Hitler személyiségének „szétesését”, amely állítátása szerint a háború utolsó napjaiban volt tanúja. Kiadása után Reitsch folytatta a rekordok felállítását, beleértve az első nőt, aki vitorlázó repülőként repült az Alpok felett. 1951-ben kiadta önéletrajzát, Un repülés az életem, 1962-től 1966-ig a Ghána nemzeti siklóiskolájának igazgatója volt. 1979-ben, 65 éves korában halt meg, csak egy évvel azután, hogy új női repülési távolságot állított fel. Karrierje során több mint 40 világrekordot állított fel motoros és motor nélküli repülőgépek repülésére.


Voir la vidéo: 1941 Hanna Reitsch Tests the Me-163 in Peenemunde